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Project Synopsis

Project Synopsis

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Published by sherrysherry

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Published by: sherrysherry on Jan 16, 2014
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01/16/2014

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Project Synopsis
In power distribution systems, the power grid station gets supply from different feeder stations like a thermal power station, a wind power station, a solar power station etc. For feasible transmission, the frequency and voltage of the AC supply should  be within the limits as decided by the grid, depending upon the demand of the power supply. In case these limits are exceeded and the demand for power is more than the demand for supply, it results in grid failure. In such situations, the feeder unit is completely disconnected from the grid, causing islanding situation. Thus synchronization is needed between the grid and the feeder unit. This project defines a way to detect the variations in frequency and voltage of the power supply from the feeder unit to determine the synchronization failure. Here a frequency variation detection system and a voltage variation detection system are used. The frequency variation is achieved using anexternal timer and detection is achieved using the internal timer of the microcontroller. Incase of the frequency limits exceeding or being too low, the lamp is accordingly switched
 
on. The voltage variation is achieved using a VARIAC and detection is achieved using a comparator arrangement and any variation in voltage is detected by the microcontroller. Incase of any voltage variations, the lamp is switched on.
Islanding
An Islanded situation is where the generator(s) and some local loads have becomedisconnected from the main distribution system. The usual situation is a section of distributionline (or the complete distribution line or lines), becomes disconnected from the main distribution/transmission system. The generator(s) output may balance with the loaddemand.
Hazards of Islanding
The hazards created during islanded operation are: 1. Unearthed operation of the distribution system
 
2. Lower fault levels 3. Out of synchronisation reclosure 4. Voltage levels outside statutory limits 5. Reduction in quality of supply 6. Risk to maintenance personnel
SYNCHRONISATION
Synchronisation means the minimisation of the difference in:
MAGNITUDE (VOLTAGE) FREQUENCY PHASE ANGLE
Between the corresponding phases of the generator output and the grid supply prior to theconnection of the two supplies. Synchronisation must occur before a generator can beconnected to the grid Synchronisation can be achieved either manually or automatically, Automatic synchronisationis preferred. It is very unlikely that new installations will include only

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