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Water Treatment (Water Supply Engineering)

Water Treatment (Water Supply Engineering)

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Published by Shuvanjan Dahal
Water Supply Engineering
Level: B.E.
Civil Engineering
Water Supply Engineering
Level: B.E.
Civil Engineering

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Published by: Shuvanjan Dahal on Jan 16, 2014
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The available raw water must be treated and purified before they can be supplied to the public for their domestic, industrial or any other uses. The layout of conventional water treatment is as follows: 6.1 Objectives of Water Treatment a.
To remove the colour, odour (taste causing substances) b.
To remove the turbidity present in water c.
To remove pathogenic organisms d.
To remove hardness e.
To make water potable f.
To prevent the spread of diseases 6.2 Treatment Processes and Impurity Removal 1.
SCREENING: Bulky and floating suspended matters are removed by the process of screening. 2.
PLAIN SEDIMENTATION: Heavy and coarse suspended matters are removed by the process of plain sedimentation. 3.
SEDIMENTATION WITH COAGULATION: This process helps to remove fine suspended and colloidal matters. 4.
FILTRATION: It is the most important stage in the purification process of water. It removes very fine suspended impurities and micro-organisms. 5.
DISINFECTION: It is carried out to eliminate or reduce pathogenic micro-organisms that have remained after the process of filtration. 6.
SOFTENING: Removes hardness of water. 7.
 AERATION: Aeration removes odour and tastes due to volatile gases like hydrogen sulphide and due to algae and related organisms. Aeration also oxidize iron and manganese, increases dissolved oxygen content in water, removes CO2 and reduces corrosion and removes methane and other flammable gases. 8.
Removal of Fe and Mn. 9.
Removal of other harmful constituents.
6.3 Screening 6.3.1 Purpose The function of screening is to remove large floating, suspended and settleable solids. The treatment devices for the purpose of screening include bar racks and screens of various description. 6.3.2 Coarse, Medium and Fine Screens
Coarse screens are called racks, are usually bar screens, composed of vertical or inclined bars spaced at equal intervals across a channel through which water flows. Bar screens with relatively large openings of 75 to 150 mm are provided ahead of pumps, while those ahead of sedimentation tanks have smaller opening of 50 mm. Bar screens are usually hand cleaned and sometimes provided with mechanical devices. These cleaning devices are rakes which periodically sweep the entire screen removing the solids for further processing or disposal. Hand cleaned racks are set usually at an angle of 45° to the horizontal to increase the effective cleaning surface and also facilitate the raking operations. Mechanically cleaned racks are generally erected almost vertically.
Medium screens have clear opening of 20 to 50 mm. Bar are usually 10 mm thick on the upstream side and taper slightly to the downstream side. The bars used for screens are rectangular in cross section usually about 10 x 50 mm, placed with larger dimension parallel to flow.
Fine screens are mechanically cleaned devices using perforated plates, woven wire cloth or  very closely spaced bars with clear openings of less than 20 mm. They are used to remove smaller suspended impurities at the surface or ground water intakes, sometimes alone or sometimes following a bar screen. In case of surface intakes, fine screens are usually arranged with rotary drum perforated with holes and are called
rotary drum strainer 
. Micro strainer also can be used for this purpose  where some device is set up to clean continuously so that fine screens do not get clogged up. Fine screens normally get clogged and are to be cleaned frequently. So they are avoided nowadays for surface intakes and fine particles are separated in sedimentation.
The head loss created by a clean screen may be calculated by considering the flow and the effective areas of screen openings, the latter being the sum of the vertical projections of the openings. The head loss through clean flat bar screens is calculated from the following formula:
h = 0.0729 (V 
 - v 
 where, h = head loss in m
 V = velocity through the screen in m/s
 v = velocity before the screen in m/s
 Another formula often used to determine the head loss through a bar rack is Kirschmer's equation:
h = b (W/b)
 sin q
 where h = head loss, m b = bar shape factor (2.42 for sharp edge rectangular bar, 1.83 for rectangular bar with semicircle upstream, 1.79 for circular bar and 1.67 for rectangular bar with both u/s and d/s face as semi-circular).  W = maximum width of bar u/s of flow, m

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