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Calculus Cheat Sheet

Calculus Cheat Sheet

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Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
 © 
2005 Paul Dawkins
Limits
Definitions
 
Precise Definition :
We say
( )
lim
 x a
 f x L
®
=
if for every 0
>
there is a 0
>
such thatwhenever 0
x a
< - <
then
( )
 f x L
- <
.
“Working” Definition :
We say
( )
lim
 x a
 f x L
®
=
 if we can make
( )
 f x
as close to
 L
as we wantby taking
 x
sufficiently close to
a
(on either sideof 
a
) without letting
 x a
=
.
Right hand limit :
( )
lim
 x a
 f x L
+
®
=
. This hasthe same definition as the limit except itrequires
 x a
>
.
Left hand limit :
( )
lim
 x a
 f x L
-
®
=
. This has thesame definition as the limit except it requires
 x a
<
.
 Limit at Infinity :
We say
( )
lim
 x
 f x L
®¥
=
if wecan make
( )
 f x
as close to
 L
as we want bytaking
 x
large enough and positive.There is a similar definition for
( )
lim
 x
 f x L
®-¥
=
 except we require
 x
large and negative.
Infinite Limit :
We say
( )
lim
 x a
 f x
®
= ¥
if wecan make
( )
 f x
arbitrarily large (and positive)by taking
 x
sufficiently close to
a
(on either sideof 
a
) without letting
 x a
=
.There is a similar definition for
( )
lim
 x a
 f x
®
= -¥
 except we make
( )
 f x
arbitrarily large andnegative.
Relationship between the limit and one-sided limits
 
( )
lim
 x a
 f x L
®
=
 
Þ
 
( ) ( )
limlim
 x a x a
 f x f x L
+ -
® ®
= =
 
( ) ( )
limlim
 x a x a
 f x f x L
+ -
® ®
= =
 
Þ
 
( )
lim
 x a
 f x L
®
=
 
( ) ( )
limlim
 x a x a
 f x f x
+ -
® ®
¹
 
Þ
 
( )
lim
 x a
 f x
®
Does Not Exist
Properties
Assume
( )
lim
 x a
 f x
®
and
( )
lim
 x a
g x
®
both exist and
c
is any number then,1.
 
( ) ( )
limlim
 x a x a
cf x c f x
® ®
=é ùë û
 
2.
 
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
limlimlim
 x a x a x a
 f x g x f x g x
® ® ®
± = ±é ùë û
 
3.
 
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
limlimlim
 x a x a x a
 f x g x f x g x
® ® ®
=é ùë û
 4.
 
( )( )( )( )
limlimlim
 x a x a x a
 f x f xg x g x
®®®
é ù=ê úë û
provided
( )
lim0
 x a
g x
®
¹
 5.
 
( ) ( )
limlim
nn x a x a
 f x f x
® ®
é ù=é ùë ûë û
 6.
 
( ) ( )
limlim
n
 
n x a x a
 f x f x
® ®
é ù=ë û
Basic Limit Evaluations at
± ¥
 Note :
( )
sgn1
a
=
if 0
a
>
and
( )
sgn1
a
= -
if 0
a
<
.1.
 
lim
x x
®¥
= ¥
e
& lim0
 x x
®- ¥
=
e
 2.
 
( )
limln
 x
 x
®¥
= ¥
&
( )
0
limln
 x
 x
-
®
= -¥
 3.
 
If 0
>
thenlim0
 x
b x
®¥
=
 4.
 
If 0
>
and
 x
is real for negative
 x
 thenlim0
 x
b x
®-¥
=
 5.
 
n
even : lim
n
 x
 x
®±¥
= ¥
 6.
 
n
odd : lim
n
 x
 x
®¥
= ¥
& lim
n
 x
 x
®- ¥
= -¥
 7.
 
n
even :
( )
limsgn
n
 x
a x bx c a
®±¥
+ + + = ¥
L
 8.
 
n
odd :
( )
limsgn
n
 x
a x bx c a
®¥
+ + + = ¥
L
 9.
 
n
odd :
( )
limsgn
n
 x
a x c x d a
®-¥
+ + + = - ¥
L
 
Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
 © 
2005 Paul Dawkins
Evaluation Techniques
 
Continuous Functions
 If 
( )
 f x
is continuous at
a
then
( ) ( )
lim
 x a
 f x f a
®
=
 
Continuous Functions and Composition
 
( )
 f x
is continuous at
b
and
( )
lim
 x a
g x b
®
=
then
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
limlim
 x a x a
g x f g x f b
® ®
= =
 
Factor and Cancel
 
( )( )( )
22222
26412limlim2268lim42
 x x x
 x x x x x x x x x x
® ®®
- ++ -=- -+= = =
 
Rationalize Numerator/Denominator
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( )
2299299
333limlim8181391limlim8139311186108
 x x x x
 x x x x xx x x x x x
® ®® ®
- - +=- -+- -= =- + + +-= = -
 
Combine Rational Expressions
 
( )( )( ) ( )
00200
1111limlim111limlim
h hh h
 x x hh x h x h x x hhh x x h x x h x
® ®® ®
æ ö- +æ ö- =ç ÷ç ÷ç ÷+ +è øè øæ ö- -= = = -ç ÷ç ÷+ +è ø
 
L’Hospital’s Rule
 If 
( )( )
0lim0
 x a
 f xg x
®
=
or
( )( )
lim
 x a
 f xg x
®
±¥=±¥
then,
( )( )( )( )
limlim
 x a x a
 f x f xg x g x
® ®
¢=¢
 
a
is a number,
¥
or
 
Polynomials at Infinity
 
( )
 p x
and
( )
q x
are polynomials. To compute
( )( )
lim
 x
 p xq x
®±¥
factor largest power of 
 x
out of both
( )
 p x
and
( )
q x
and then compute limit.
()
( )
222222
4455
33343limlimlim52222
 x x x
 x x
 xx
 x x x xx
®-¥ ®-¥ ®-¥
---= = = -- --
Piecewise Function
 
( )
2
lim
 x
g x
®-
where
( )
2
5if 213if 2
 x xg x x x
ì+ < -=í- ³ -î
 Compute two one sided limits,
( )
222
limlim59
 x x
g x x
- -
®- ®-
= + =
 
( )
22
limlim137
 x x
g x x
+ +
®- ®-
= - =
 One sided limits are different so
( )
2
lim
 x
g x
®-
 doesn’t exist. If the two one sided limits hadbeen equal then
( )
2
lim
 x
g x
®-
would have existedand had the same value.
Some Continuous Functions
Partial list of continuous functions and the values of 
 x
for which they are continuous.1.
 
Polynomials for all
 x
.2.
 
Rational function, except for
 x
’s that givedivision by zero.3.
 
 
n
 x
(
n
odd) for all
 x
.4.
 
n
 x
(
n
even) for all 0
 x
³
.5.
 
 x
e
for all
 x
.6.
 
ln
 x
for 0
 x
>
.7.
 
( )
cos
x
and
( )
sin
x
for all
 x
.8.
 
( )
tan
x
and
( )
sec
x
provided33,,,,,2222
 x
p p p p 
¹ - -
L L
 9.
 
( )
cot
x
and
( )
csc
x
provided
,2,,0,,2,
 x
p p p
¹ - -
L L
 
Intermediate Value Theorem
Suppose that
( )
 f x
is continuous on [
a, b
] and let
 M 
be any number between
( )
 f a
and
( )
 f b
.Then there exists a number
c
such that
a c b
< <
and
( )
 f c
=
.
 
 
Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
 © 
2005 Paul Dawkins
Derivatives
Definition and Notation
If 
( )
 y f x
=
then the derivative is defined to be
( )( ) ( )
0
lim
h
 f x h f x f xh
®
+ -¢=
.
 
If 
( )
 y f x
=
then all of the following areequivalent notations for the derivative.
( ) ( )
( )
( )
df dy  f x y f x Df xdx dx dx
¢ ¢= = = = =
 If 
( )
 y f x
=
all of the following are equivalentnotations for derivative evaluated at
 x a
=
.
( ) ( )
 x a x a x a
df dy f a y Df adx dx
== =
¢ ¢= = = =
 
Interpretation of the Derivative
 If 
( )
 y f x
=
then,1.
 
( )
m f a
¢=
is the slope of the tangentline to
( )
 y f x
=
at
 x a
=
and theequation of the tangent line at
 x a
=
isgiven by
( ) ( )( )
 y f a f a x a
¢= + -
.2.
 
( )
 f a
¢
is the instantaneous rate of change of 
( )
 f x
at
 x a
=
.3.
 
If 
( )
 f x
is the position of an object attime
 x
then
( )
 f a
¢
is the velocity of the object at
 x a
=
.
Basic Properties and Formulas
 If 
( )
 f x
and
( )
g x
are differentiable functions (the derivative exists),
c
and
n
are any real numbers,1.
 
( ) ( )
c f c f x
¢¢=
 2.
 
( ) ( ) ( )
 f g f x g x
¢¢ ¢± = ±
 3.
 
( )
 f g f g f g
¢¢ ¢= +
 
– Product Rule
4.
 
2
 f f g f gg g
¢¢ ¢æ ö-=ç ÷è ø
 
– Quotient Rule
 5.
 
( )
0
cdx
=
 6.
 
( )
1
n n
 x nxdx
-
=
– Power Rule
 7.
 
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
 f g x f g x g xdx
¢ ¢=
 This is the
Chain Rule
 
Common Derivatives
( )
1
 xdx
=
 
( )
sincos
 x xdx
=
 
( )
cossin
 x xdx
= -
 
( )
2
tansec
 x xdx
=
 
( )
secsectan
 x x xdx
=
 
( )
csccsccot
 x x xdx
= -
 
( )
2
cotcsc
 x xdx
= -
 
( )
12
1sin1
 xdxx
-
=-
 
( )
12
1cos1
 xdxx
-
= --
 
( )
12
1tan1
 xdx x
-
=+
 
( )
( )
ln
 x x
a a adx
=
( )
 x x
dx
=
ee
 
( )
( )
1ln,0
 x xdx x
= >
( )
1ln,0
 x xdx x
= ¹
 
( )
( )
1log,0ln
a
 x xdx x a
= >
 
Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
 © 
2005 Paul Dawkins
Chain Rule Variants
The chain rule applied to some specific functions.1.
 
( )
 
( )
( ) ( )
1
n n
 f x n f x f xdx
-
¢=é ù é ùë û ë û
 2.
 
( )
( )
( )
( )
 f x f x
 f xdx
¢=
ee
 3.
 
( )
( )
( )( )
ln
 f x f xdx f x
¢=é ùë û
 4.
 
( )
( )
( ) ( )
sincos
 f x f x f xdx
¢=é ù é ùë û ë û
 5.
 
( )
( )
( ) ( )
cossin
 f x f x f xdx
¢= -é ù é ùë û ë û
 6.
 
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2
tansec
 f x f x f xdx
¢=é ù é ùë û ë û
 7.
 
[ ]
( )
[ ] [ ]
()()()()
secsectan
 f x f x f x f x
dx
¢
=
 8.
 
( )
( )
( )( )
12
tan1
 f x f xdxf x
-
¢=é ùë û+ é ùë û
 
Higher Order Derivatives
 The Second Derivative is denoted as
( )
( )
( )
222
d  f x f xdx
¢¢= =
and is defined as
( ) ( )
( )
 f x f x
¢¢¢ ¢=
,
i.e.
the derivative of thefirst derivative,
( )
 f x
¢
.The n
th
Derivative is denoted as
( )
( )
nnn
d  f xdx
=
and is defined as
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
n n
 f x f x
-
¢=
,
i.e.
the derivative of the (
n
-1)
st
derivative,
( )
( )
1
n
 f x
-
.
Implicit Differentiation
Find
 y
¢
if 
( )
2932
sin11
 x y
 x y y x
-
+ = +
e
. Remember
( )
 y y x
=
here, so products/quotients of 
 x
and
 y
 will use the product/quotient rule and derivatives of 
 y
will use the chain rule. The “trick” is todifferentiate as normal and every time you differentiate a
 y
you tack on a
 y
¢
(from the chain rule).After differentiating solve for
 y
¢
.
( ) ( )( )( )
( )
( )
29223292229292233293292922
2932cos1111232932cos1129cos29cos1123
 x y x y x y x y x y x y x y
 y x y x y y y y x y y x y x y y y y y x y y x y y y x y
--- --- -
¢ ¢ ¢- + + = +- -¢ ¢ ¢ ¢- + + = + Þ =- -¢- - = - -
eeeeeee
 
Increasing/Decreasing – Concave Up/Concave DownCritical Points
 
 x c
=
is a critical point of 
( )
 f x
provided either
1.
 
( )
0
 f c
¢=
or
2.
 
( )
 f c
¢
doesn’t exist.
Increasing/Decreasing
 1.
 
If 
( )
0
 f x
¢>
for all
 x
in an interval
 I 
then
( )
 f x
is increasing on the interval
 I 
.2.
 
If 
( )
0
 f x
¢<
for all
 x
in an interval
 I 
then
( )
 f x
is decreasing on the interval
 I 
.3.
 
If 
( )
0
 f x
¢=
for all
 x
in an interval
 I 
then
( )
 f x
is constant on the interval
 I 
.
Concave Up/Concave Down
 1.
 
If 
( )
0
 f x
¢¢>
for all
 x
in an interval
 I 
then
( )
 f x
is concave up on the interval
 I 
.2.
 
If 
( )
0
 f x
¢¢<
for all
 x
in an interval
 I 
then
( )
 f x
is concave down on the interval
 I 
.
Inflection Points
 x c
=
is a inflection point of 
( )
 f x
if theconcavity changes at
 x c
=
.
 
 
Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
 © 
2005 Paul Dawkins
ExtremaAbsolute Extrema
 1.
 
 x c
=
is an absolute maximum of 
( )
 f x
 if 
( ) ( )
 f c f x
³
for all
 x
in the domain.2.
 
 x c
=
is an absolute minimum of 
( )
 f x
 if 
( ) ( )
 f c f x
£
for all
 x
in the domain.
Fermat’s Theorem
 If 
( )
 f x
has a relative (or local) extrema at
 x c
=
, then
 x c
=
is a critical point of 
( )
 f x
.
Extreme Value Theorem
 If 
( )
 f x
is continuous on the closed interval
[ ]
,
a b
then there exist numbers
c
and
so that,
1.
,
a c d b
£ £
,
2.
 
( )
 f c
is the abs. max. in
[ ]
,
a b
,
3.
 
( )
 f
is the abs. min. in
[ ]
,
a b
.
Finding Absolute Extrema
 To find the absolute extrema of the continuousfunction
( )
 f x
on the interval
[ ]
,
a b
use thefollowing process.1.
 
Find all critical points of 
( )
 f x
in
[ ]
,
a b
.2.
 
Evaluate
( )
 f x
at all points found in Step 1.3.
 
Evaluate
( )
 f a
and
( )
 f b
.4.
 
Identify the abs. max. (largest functionvalue) and the abs. min.(smallest functionvalue) from the evaluations in Steps 2 & 3.
Relative (local) Extrema
 1.
 
 x c
=
is a relative (or local) maximum of 
( )
 f x
if 
( ) ( )
 f c f x
³
for all
 x
near
c
.2.
 
 x c
=
is a relative (or local) minimum of 
( )
 f x
if 
( ) ( )
 f c f x
£
for all
 x
near
c
.
1
st
Derivative Test
 If 
 x c
=
is a critical point of 
( )
 f x
then
 x c
=
is1.
 
a rel. max. of 
( )
 f x
if 
( )
0
 f x
¢>
to the leftof 
 x c
=
and
( )
0
 f x
¢<
to the right of 
 x c
=
.2.
 
a rel. min. of 
( )
 f x
if 
( )
0
 f x
¢<
to the leftof 
 x c
=
and
( )
0
 f x
¢>
to the right of 
 x c
=
.3.
 
not a relative extrema of 
( )
 f x
if 
( )
 f x
¢
isthe same sign on both sides of 
 x c
=
.
2
nd
Derivative Test
 If 
 x c
=
is a critical point of 
( )
 f x
such that
( )
0
 f c
¢=
then
 x c
=
 1.
 
is a relative maximum of 
( )
 f x
if 
( )
0
 f c
¢¢<
.2.
 
is a relative minimum of 
( )
 f x
if 
( )
0
 f c
¢¢>
.3.
 
may be a relative maximum, relativeminimum, or neither if 
( )
0
 f c
¢¢=
.
Finding Relative Extrema and/orClassify Critical Points
1.
 
Find all critical points of 
( )
 f x
.2.
 
Use the 1
st
derivative test or the 2
nd
 derivative test on each critical point.
Mean Value Theorem
 If 
( )
 f x
is continuous on the closed interval
[ ]
,
a b
and differentiable on the open interval
( )
,
a b
 then there is a number
a c b
< <
such that
( )( ) ( )
 f b f a f cb a
-¢=-
.
Newton’s Method
 If 
n
 x
is the
n
th
guess for the root/solution of 
( )
0
 f x
=
then (
n
+1)
st
guess is
( )( )
1
nn nn
 f x x x f x
+
= -¢
 provided
( )
n
 f x
¢
exists.
Calculus Cheat SheetVisithttp://tutorial.math.lamar.edu for a complete set of Calculus notes.
 © 
2005 Paul Dawkins
Related Rates
Sketch picture and identify known/unknown quantities. Write down equation relating quantitiesand differentiate with respect to
using implicit differentiation (
i.e.
add on a derivative every timeyou differentiate a function of 
). Plug in known quantities and solve for the unknown quantity.
Ex.
A 15 foot ladder is resting against a wall.The bottom is initially 10 ft away and is beingpushed towards the wall at
14
ft/sec. How fastis the top moving after 12 sec?
 x
¢
is negative because
 x
is decreasing. UsingPythagorean Theorem and differentiating,
222
15220
 x y x x y y
¢ ¢+ = Þ + =
 After 12 sec we have
( )
14
10127
 x
= - =
andso
22
157176
 y
= - =
. Plug in and solvefor
 y
¢
.
( )
14
771760 ft/sec4176
 y y
¢ ¢- + = Þ =
 
Ex.
Two people are 50 ft apart when onestarts walking north. The angle
changes at0.01 rad/min. At what rate is the distancebetween them changing when 0.5
=
rad?We have 0.01
¢=
rad/min. and want to find
 x
¢
. We can use various trig fcns but easiest is,secsectan5050
 x x
q q q
¢¢= Þ =
 We know0.05
=
so plug in
¢
and solve.
( ) ( )( )
sec0.5tan0.50.01500.3112 ft/sec
 x x
¢=¢=
 Remember to have calculator in radians!
Optimization
Sketch picture if needed, write down equation to be optimized and constraint. Solve constraint forone of the two variables and plug into first equation. Find critical points of equation in range of variables and verify that they are min/max as needed.
 Ex.
We’re enclosing a rectangular field with500 ft of fence material and one side of thefield is a building. Determine dimensions thatwill maximize the enclosed area.Maximize
 A xy
=
subject to constraint of 2500
 x y
+ =
. Solve constraint for
 x
and pluginto area.
( )
2
500250025002
 A y y x y y y
= -= - Þ= -
 Differentiate and find critical point(s).
5004125
 A y y
¢= - Þ =
 By 2
nd
deriv. test this is a rel. max. and so isthe answer where after. Finally, find
 x
.
( )
5002125250
 x
= - =
 The dimensions are then 250 x 125.
Ex.
Determine point(s) on
2
1
 y x
= +
that areclosest to (0,2).Minimize
( ) ( )
222
02
 f d x y
= = - + -
and theconstraint is
2
1
 y x
= +
. Solve constraint for
2
 x
and plug into the function.
( )( )
22222
121233
 x y f x y y y y y
= - Þ = + -= - + - = - +
Differentiate and find critical point(s).
32
23
 f y y
¢= - Þ =
 By the 2
nd
derivative test this is a rel. min. andso all we need to do is find
 x
value(s).
2311222
1
 x x
= - = Þ = ±
 The 2 points are then
( )
3122
, and
( )
3122
,
-
.

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