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IB HL Chemistry Assessment Statements Topic 13

IB HL Chemistry Assessment Statements Topic 13

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Andrew VoylesIB Chemistry Assessment Statements: Topic 13: Periodicity13.1.1: Na
2
O, MgO, Al
2
O
3,
SiO
2,
P
4
O
10,
P
4
O
6
, NaCl, MgCl
2,
Al
2
Cl
6,
and
 
AlCl
3
are all solids under standard conditions, due to their strong ionic bondsor network covalent bonds (SiO
2,
P
4
O
10,
P
4
O
6,
Al
2
Cl
6,
and
 
AlCl
3
). SO
3,
Cl
2
O
7,
SiCl
4,
and
 
PCl
3
are liquids at room temperature due to their weakercovalent bonds and stronger intermolecular forces. SO
2,
Cl
2
O, and Cl
2
are gases under standard conditions due to their weakerintermolecular forces.Na
2
O, MgO, Al
2
O
3,
NaCl, and MgCl
2
are good electrical conductors in themolten state, as their ionic bonds give up mobile charged electronswhen the compounds undergo melting. SiO
2,
Al
2
Cl
6,
and
 
AlCl
3
arenetwork covalent compounds and so have no significant conductivity. The other compounds are covalent compounds and do not have mobileelectrons to transport charge, so they are not conductors.13.1.2:Adding H
2
ONaClNaCl
(aq)
-> Na
+(aq)
+ Cl
-(aq)
MgCl
2
MgCl
2 (aq)
-> Mg
2+(aq)
+ 2Cl
-(aq)
Al
2
Cl
6
Al
2
Cl
6
+ 6H
2
O -> 2[Al(H
2
O)
3
]
+3
+ 6HCl
(aq)
SiCl
4
SiCl
4
+ H
2
O -> Si(OH)
4
+ 4HCl
(aq)
PCl
3
PCl
3
+ 3H
2
O -> H
3
PO
3 (aq)
+ 3HCl
(aq)
PCl
5
2PCl
5
+ 6H
2
O -> 2HPO
3 (aq)
+ 10HCl
(aq)
Cl
2
Cl
2 (g)
+ H
2
O -> HCl
(aq)
+ HClO
(aq)
13.2.1: Typical d-block elements contain an incomplete d orbital, andgenerally exhibit multiple oxidation states (in period 4, with theexceptions of Sc or Zn) ,form colored compounds, form complex ions,and act as catalysts.13.2.2: Zn is not considered a transition element because both itsmetal and its common ion (Zn
+2
) do not have an incomplete d orbital([Ar]4s
2
3d
10
and [Ar] 3d
10
configurations, respectively). Sc is similar inthat its common ion (Sc
+3
) does not have an incomplete d orbital ([Ar]configuration).13.2.3: The multiple oxidation states of the d-block (transition metal)elements are due to the proximity between the 4s and 3d sub shells (interms of energy). All transition metals exhibit a +2 oxidation state
 
(both electrons being lost from the 4s) and all have other oxidationstates as in the following examples:
V
: +2, +3, +4, +5
Cr
: +2, +3, +6
Mn
: +2, +4, +6, +7
Fe
: +2, +3
Cu
: +1, +213.2.4: Ligands are molecules which donate an electron pair to form adative covalent bond with the central atom, forming a complex ion.13.2.5: Complex ions are molecules which carry a charge. They areformed around a central atom, with ligands (atoms or molecules)donating an electron pair to form a covalent bond to this central atom.
[Fe(H
2
O)
6
]
3+
: Fe is the central atom, H
2
O is the ligand.
[Fe(CN)
6
]
3-
: Fe is the central atom, CN is the ligand.
[CuCl
4
]
3-
: Cu is the central atom, Cl is the ligand.
[Ag(NH
3
)
2
]
+
: Ag is central atom, NH
3
is the ligand.13.2.6: The color in the transition metals (d-block) is predominantlydue to the splitting of the d shell orbitals into slightly different energylevels. As a result, certain wavelengths of energy can be absorbed bythe d-block elements (causing electrons to jump between these slightlydifferent energy levels), resulting in the complement color beingvisible.13.2.7: D-block elements make good catalysts due to their multipleoxidation states. This gives them the ability to react with differentspecies and produce a path of lower activation energy, and so causethe reaction to proceed at a faster rate. Many examples of these canseen in the following examples.
2 H
2
O
2
(aq) O
2
(g) + 2 H
2
O(l)2 SO
2
(g)
+ O
2
(g)
2 SO
3
(g)
SO
3
(g)
+ H
2
O(l)
H
2
SO
4
(aq) N
2
(g) + 3H
2
(g) 2NH
3
(g)

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