Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
5Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
IB HL Chemistry Assessment Statements Topics 8 and 18

IB HL Chemistry Assessment Statements Topics 8 and 18

Ratings: (0)|Views: 1,462 |Likes:
Published by Andrew

More info:

Published by: Andrew on Sep 22, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOC, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

02/03/2013

pdf

text

original

 
Andrew VoylesIB Chemistry Assessment Statements: Topic 8: Acids and BasesTopic 18: Acids and Bases8.1.1: According to the Bronsted-Lowry theory, acids are defined asproton (H
+
ion) donors and bases are defined as proton acceptors.8.1.2: For a compound to act as a Bronsted-Lowry (BL) acid, it musthave a hydrogen atom in it, which it is capable of losing whileremaining fairly stable. A BL base must be capable of accepting ahydrogen ion while remaining relatively stable (or reacting to formstable compounds, i.e. a water and a salt).Some compounds (such as water) may act as both a BL acid and a BLbase i.e. (H
2
O-> OH
-
or H
3
O
+
)8.1.3: The conjugate base will always have one less H atom that theacid and the acid one more than the base. In compounds where thereare many hydrogen atoms, the one which is held the weakest isgenerally the one which is lost, and this must be reflected in thewriting of the compound, as in the CH
3
COOH example below.CH
3
COOH (Acid)/ CH
3
COO
-
(Conjugate Base)NH
3
(Base) / NH
4+
(Conjugate Acid)8.2.1: Acids are electrolytes, and have a sour taste, although oneshould never taste them for identification purposes. They undergosingle replacement reactions with metals to form a salt and hydrogengas, and neutralization reactions with bases to form salts and water. Astrip of litmus paper dipped in an acid will change from blue to red, andan acid will turn phenolphthalein colorless.Bases are also electrolytes, and have a bitter taste, although oneshould never taste them for identification purposes. A strip of litmuspaper dipped in a base will change from red to blue, and a base willturn phenolphthalein red. They are also slippery to the touch andundergo neutralization reactions with acids to form salts and water.8.3.1: Strong and weak acids and bases are defined by their ease of losing (or donating) a proton or hydroxide ion, respectively. A strongacid or base, when placed in water, will almost fully ionize/dissociate,producing H
3
O
+
or hydroxide ions from water. A weak acid or base will,however, only partially do this, leaving some unreacted acid or base
 
remaining. This is set up as an equilibrium, and so when some of theH
3
O
+
ions produced by a weak acid are reacted, Le Chatlier’s meansthat more of the acid will react to form H
3
O
-
ions. This means that,given an equal number of mols of acid, they will be neutralized by thesame amount of strong base, but their solutions will have different pHvalues. A weak base is the same as this, only it accepts protons and soproduces OH
-
ions from water rather than H
3
O
-
. Any solution’s ability toconduct electricity is defined by is charges ions in it. A strong acid willproduce more charged ions than a weak one, and so it’s solution will bea better electrical conductor than a weak acid. The same goes forstrong/weak bases.8.3.2: The strong acids are: HCl (hydrochloric), H
2
SO
4
(sulfuric), HNO
3
(nitric), and HClO
4
(perchloric). All other acids are weak acids. The strong bases are the hydroxides of the group 1 metals, andBa(OH)
2
. All other bases are weak.8.3.3: Strong acids and bases are those which disassociate completelyor almost completely in aqueous solution. The strength of an acid orbase can be measured with a universal indicator or a pH meter. Alsothe rate of reaction measured by hydrogen production with metals orCO
2
with CaCO
3
will reveal the strength of an acid.8.4.1: pH vales range up and down from 7 (7 being the neutral value of pure water at 20 ºC and 1 atm). Lower pH values are acidic, highervalues are basic.8.4.2: For two acidic solutions, the solution with the lower pH is moreacidic. For two basic solutions, the solution with the higher pH is morebasic.8.4.3: A change of 1 in the pH scale represents a 10 times change inthe acidity or alkalinity of the solution, due to the fact that the scale islogarithmic, of base 10.8.4.4: The factor by which the pH changes is equal to 10
ΔpH
. If the pHincreases by two units, then the solution is more alkaline by a factor o10
2
, 100 (or
1
/
100
as acidic). If the pH decreases by three units, then thesolution is more acidic by a factor of 10
3
, 1000 (or
1
/
1000
as alkaline).
 
18.1.1: K 
w
=[H
+
][OH
-
]. The value of K 
w
is 1 x 10
-14
at 25c, but varieswith temperature.18.1.4: n general HA
(aq)
<=> H
+(aq)
+ A
-(aq)
or B
(aq)
+ H
2
O
(l)
<=> BH
+
+OH
-(aq)
. Therefore K 
a
=
[H+][A-]
/
[HA]
and K 
b
=
[BH+][OH-]
/
[B]
 18.1.6: The larger an acid’s K 
a
or the lower its pK 
a
, the stronger it is. The larger a base’s K 
b
or the lower its pK 
b
, the stronger it is.18.2.1: A buffer solution is composed of a weak acid/base and it'sconjugate base/acid. A solution of weak acid is made, and this forms aequilibrium with the water: HA + H
2
O <=> A
-
+ H
3
O
+
. To this solution, some of the acid's conjugate base (A
-
) is added,resulting in an increase in the concentration of A
-
. Some of this reactswith the H
3
O
+
. The result of this is, when equilibrium is re-established, there is aconsiderable amount of both HA and A- present in the solution, in andynamic equilibrium. If some other acid is added, this will react withthe A
-
, but this causes the equilibrium to shift to the right, almostcompletely counteracting any pH change. The addition of a base,which reacts with the HA, cause the equilibrium to be shifted to theleft, again resulting in very little pH change. This continues until one of the two components, either HA or A
-
are completely used up, at whichtime the pH then changes normally. The reverse of this is true for bases.18.2.2: The pH of a buffer solution can be found via the followingexpression
a
=
[H+][A-]
/
[HA]
). This expression can first be rearranged to [H
+
] = K 
a
x
[HA]
/
[A-]
. Given the concentration of both the Acid and its conjugate base,and the K 
a
value of the acid, the concentration of H+ can be calculatedand this can be converted into a value for pH.18.3.1: The salt of a strong acid and a strong base will be neutral whendissolved in aqueous solution. The salt of a weak acid and a strongbase will be basic when dissolved in aqueous solution. The salt of astrong acid and a weak base will be acidic when dissolved in aqueoussolution. The pH of a salt of a weak acid and a weak base will dependon the relative values of K 
a
and K 
b
.

Activity (5)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Zhanfei Xu liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->