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IB HL Chemistry Assessment Statements Topics 9 and 19

IB HL Chemistry Assessment Statements Topics 9 and 19

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Andrew VoylesIB Chemistry Assessment Statements: Topic 9: RedoxTopic 19: Redox9.1.1: OILRIG –
O
xidation
I
s
L
oss of electrons,
R
eduction
I
s
G
ain of electrons.9.1.2: The oxidation number of an element is zero. The oxidationnumber of an ion is equal to the charge of the ion. In compounds,Hydrogen has an oxidation number of +1. In compounds, Oxygen(usually, but not in peroxides) has an oxidation number of -2. Typically,in a molecule, an atoms’ oxidation number is what its charge would beif the molecule were a polyatomic ion.9.1.3: Iron oxide, comes in two forms. FeO and Fe
2
O
3
, Iron (II) oxide andIron (III) oxide, respectively.9.1.4: If an element is oxidized, its oxidation number will go up. If anelement is reduced, its oxidation number will go down.9.2.1: Oxidation half equation... Mg Mg
2+
+ 2e
-
.Reduction half equation... O + 2e
-
O
2-
.9.2.2: MnO
4-
+ I
-
→ I
2
+ Mn
2+
2I
-
→ I
2
MnO
4-
→ Mn
2+
 2I
-
→ I
2
MnO
4-
+ 8 H
+
→ Mn
2+
+ 4 H
2
O2 I
-
→ I
2
+ 2e
-
5 e
-
+ 8 H
+
+ MnO
4-
→ Mn
2+
+ 4 H
2
O5(2I
-
→ I
2
+2e
-
)2(5e
-
+ 8H
+
+ MnO
4-
→ Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O)10 I
-
+ 10 e
-
+ 16 H
+
+ 2 MnO
4-
→ 5 I
2
+ 2 Mn
2+
+ 10 e
-
+ 8 H
2
O10 I
-
+ 16 H
+
+ 2 MnO
4-
→ 5 I
2
+ 2 Mn
2+
+ 8 H
2
O9.2.3: An oxidizing agent is an element which causes oxidation (and isreduced as a result) by removing electrons from another species.
 
A reducing agent is an element which causes reduction (and is oxidizedas a result) by giving electrons to another species.9.2.4: Mg Mg
2+
+ 2e
-
. Reducing agentO + 2e
-
O
2-
Oxidizing agent9.3.1: A more reactive metal will displace a less reactive one from acompound and a more reactive halogen will displace a weaker onefrom a compound. This can be generalized to say a stronger reducingagent will displace a weaker one from a compound, and a strongeroxidizing agent will displace a weaker one from a compound. Thus, if ametal displaces another, we know it must be more reactive and thesame for halogens (which are the given examples).9.4.1: Add the two half equations in question together (the oxidationhalf-reaction will have to be reversed, invert the sign of the standardreduction potential value also) If the total standard reduction potentialvalue is positive, the reaction is possible. If not, it isn’t.9.4.1: In the redox reaction that powers the voltaic cell, reduction(addition of electrons) occurs to cations at the cathode, while oxidation(removal of electrons) occurs to anions at the anode. The electrodes donot touch each other but are electrically connected by the electrolyte,which can be either solid or liquid.9.4.2: Oxidation occurs at the negative electrode (the anode), andreduction occurs at the positive electrode (the cathode), in a voltaiccell.
 
9.5.1: This is, fundamentally, the reverse of an electrochemical cell. Inthis case a greater electromotive force is applied from the externalcircuit using a battery or power source and this forces the specieswithin the cell to perform the reverse reaction to that which they wouldnormally tend to do.It is important not to confuse electrochemical cells which generateelectricity by means of a redox reaction and electrolytic cells which useelectricity to perform chemical reactions.9.5.2: Oxidation occurs at the positive electrode (the anode), andreduction occurs at the negative electrode (the cathode), in a voltaiccell.9.5.3: Due to the fact that the electrical potential for electrolysis isnegative, this reaction will not proceed spontaneously, so an externalpower source (i.e., a battery) must be applied to force the reaction tooccur.9.5.4: The cation is reduced to form solid metal, and the anion isoxidized to form a gas, typically. The Pb
2+
ions go to the cathode where they pick up electrons andbecome Lead atomsPb
2+
+ 2e Pb The Br
-
ions go to the anode where they lose electrons and becomeBromine molecules2Br
-
Br
2
 19.1.1: The standard hydrogen electrode consists of a solution of H
3
Oions at 1 mol dm
-3
in a beaker. Placed into this is a platinum electrodesurrounded by a gas tube submerged in the solution, with hydrogengas bubbling over it at 1 atm inside. The circuit to the other half cell isthen attached to the platinum electrode, and a salt bridge saturated inpotassium chloride. The entire process should take place at 298K and 1atm pressure.

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