9.5.1: This is, fundamentally, the reverse of an electrochemical cell. Inthis case a greater electromotive force is applied from the externalcircuit using a battery or power source and this forces the specieswithin the cell to perform the reverse reaction to that which they wouldnormally tend to do.It is important not to confuse electrochemical cells which generateelectricity by means of a redox reaction and electrolytic cells which useelectricity to perform chemical reactions.9.5.2: Oxidation occurs at the positive electrode (the anode), andreduction occurs at the negative electrode (the cathode), in a voltaiccell.9.5.3: Due to the fact that the electrical potential for electrolysis isnegative, this reaction will not proceed spontaneously, so an externalpower source (i.e., a battery) must be applied to force the reaction tooccur.9.5.4: The cation is reduced to form solid metal, and the anion isoxidized to form a gas, typically. The Pb
ions go to the cathode where they pick up electrons andbecome Lead atomsPb
+ 2e Pb The Br
ions go to the anode where they lose electrons and becomeBromine molecules2Br
19.1.1: The standard hydrogen electrode consists of a solution of H
Oions at 1 mol dm
in a beaker. Placed into this is a platinum electrodesurrounded by a gas tube submerged in the solution, with hydrogengas bubbling over it at 1 atm inside. The circuit to the other half cell isthen attached to the platinum electrode, and a salt bridge saturated inpotassium chloride. The entire process should take place at 298K and 1atm pressure.