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Class Notes: Fluid Flow in Closed Conduit

Class Notes: Fluid Flow in Closed Conduit

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Published by Ram Krishna Singh

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Published by: Ram Krishna Singh on Sep 22, 2009
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Fluid Flow in a Closed Conduit for M.Sc. Renewable Energy EG802ME
The following review notes state the concepts and equations necessary to solve potentialfinal examination questions in this subject. The following basic topics and theircorresponding equations and charts are covered in these notes:
Application of Bernoulli’s Equation with Friction Losses
Major and Minor Friction Losses
Energy Gains and Losses due to Pumps and Turbines
Hydraulic Grade Lines and Energy Grade Lines
Application of Bernoulli Equation with Friction Losses
The Bernoulli Equation:It is important to note that is this version of the equation, the unit for each term is a unitof length. This length is what is referred to as “head”, with the first term representing“pressure head”, the second term representing “velocity head”, and the third termrepresenting “elevation head”. For the remainder of these notes, all fluid energy termsused will have the units of length and they will be referred to as “head”The Bernoulli Equation for two points:This equation is valid for steady state, frictionless, incompressible fluid flow, along astreamline. Of these requirements, some can be assumed for the practical purposes of using this equation. Below is a review of each condition, how it is met, and whatsituations are not valid to meet it’s conditionSteady State – in our analysis, we will assume a period of time has elapsed for the fluidflow to reach steady state. Some example problems where this condition is not met are:startup of a pump, initial filling of a pipeline, and fluid flow with fast cycling inputs.Frictionless – this condition is not met in most fluid flow in a closed conduit situations.Additionally the head losses due to friction are often too large to be considerednegligible. In the next section, we will classify different types of friction losses and giveequations for the quantification of the head lost.
Incompressible – this condition is not met in fluid flow in a closed conduit. However, formost liquids, including water, the errors generated by fluid compressibility are smallenough to be considered negligible. The most common situations where the errorsgenerated are too significant to be ignored, are the fluid flow of gasses and vapors.Streamline – this condition is met in fluid flow in a closed conduit, so long as there isonly one conduit that is being analyzed. If the conduit splits into multiple closed conduitsin parallel, then the equations are no longer valid and different analysis techniques mustbe used.Using the conditions previously stated, we must assure that the situation we are analyzingand the resulting equation meets the following requirements:
The fluid flow is at steady state
A mathematical term is added to the equation to represent friction losses
The fluid is a liquid, such as water, that has negligible compressibility
There is only one conduit in the analysisTaking these into account, we arrive at the following Modified Bernoulli Equation, whereh
is the summation of all of the friction losses.In the next section we will quantify the values for different friction losses for the purposeof using them in the Modified Bernoulli Equation.
Major and Minor Friction Losses
As previously stated, there are two categories of friction losses used in the analysis of fluid flow in a closed conduit.Major Losses – These are frictional losses created by fluid motion over the pipe walls.For the purpose of these notes, we will not cover concepts such as boundary layers. Wewill only state that these head losses are inherent in all pipes and they are dependent onproperties of both the pipe and the fluid.Minor Losses – These are frictional losses created by fluid motion through outlets, inlets,expansions, contractions, valves, and any other geometrical obstructions in the fluid flow.The head losses in these cases are mostly caused by disturbances in the fluid flow thatresult in increased turbulence and motion in other directions than the prevailing generaldirection of fluid flow.
 Below are the two equations used for the major losses is head. Please note that they areseparated by a range of values for the Reynolds Number (Re) that defines their validity.For all cases, the Reynolds Number must first be determined.Reynolds Number for Fluid Flow in a Circular PipeMajor 1 (where friction factor f is taken from the Moody Diagram using Re > 2000):Major 1 (where Re < 2000 there is no need to use the Moody Diagram):There are two widely used methods for quantifying minor losses. The first methodshown below uses a loss factor K and multiplies by the velocity head. In a separateequation, the summation of all minor losses is added to the major loss to get the totalfriction head loss. This is most common in undergraduate academic work, and table forcommon values of K are used.Typical Values for K include:For sudden contraction ( K = 0.5 ), the velocity in the smaller pipe is used.

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