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LATEST Computer

LATEST Computer

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Published by: brosonzogo9565 on Sep 22, 2009
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DAR ES SALAAMINSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGYCONTINUING EDUCATIONPREPARED BYEdgar Bebwa
 
CONTENT
(I) COMPUTER SYSTEM COMPONENT......................................................................62. HOW COMPUTERS WORK...................................................................................7(I) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE....................................................................................8(II) POWER-ON SELF TEST (POST)..........................................................................8
Loading the operating system ......................................................................................................................................................9
(III) THE BOOT SEQUENCE ....................................................................................93. HARDWARE COMPONENTS ..............................................................................10
Computer case ...........................................................................................................................................................................11
(I)POWER SUPPLY...............................................................................................11(II) COOLING SYSTEMS .......................................................................................12(III) THE MOTHERBOARD ....................................................................................13
Motherboard form factors ..........................................................................................................................................................14Motherboard components ..........................................................................................................................................................14Motherboard Chipset..................................................................................................................................................................15
(IV) CPUS ..........................................................................................................15
CPU REGISTERS & THE PROCESSING CYCLE..................................................................................................................17Processor Slots...........................................................................................................................................................................17Pentium Processors....................................................................................................................................................................17
(V) BIOS.............................................................................................................18
Evolution of the BIOS................................................................................................................................................................18BIOS Function...........................................................................................................................................................................19Entering the BIOS configuration ...............................................................................................................................................19
(VI) CMOS..........................................................................................................20
Standard CMOS setup screen ....................................................................................................................................................20BOOT SEQUENCE...................................................................................................................................................................21BIOS features and chipset features setup screens ......................................................................................................................21Chipset Features Setup...............................................................................................................................................................21Power management and Plug and Play screens .........................................................................................................................21PnP/PCI Configuration Setup.....................................................................................................................................................21Integrated peripherals and fixed disk detection screens .............................................................................................................22Fixed Disk Detection..................................................................................................................................................................22Password screens and the load setup defaults screen .................................................................................................................22BIOS exit options ......................................................................................................................................................................23Startup sequence ........................................................................................................................................................................23Post Errors and Troubleshooting................................................................................................................................................23
4. MEMORY........................................................................................................25
(i) Measurement-related terminology ........................................................................................................................................25
(II) ROM.............................................................................................................26
EPROM,.....................................................................................................................................................................................26EEPROM, and Flash ROM........................................................................................................................................................26RAM .........................................................................................................................................................................................27
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Identifying SIMMs and DIMMs ................................................................................................................................................28Cache/Coast memory ................................................................................................................................................................28Expansion slots ..........................................................................................................................................................................29
(III)BUS TYPES ...................................................................................................29(IV) MONITORS/DISPLAY DEVICES .......................................................................30(V) VIDEO CARDS ...............................................................................................31
VRAM.......................................................................................................................................................................................32
(VI) PORTS.........................................................................................................32
Serial and parallel ports .............................................................................................................................................................32Serial Ports.................................................................................................................................................................................32Parallel Ports..............................................................................................................................................................................32PS/2 ports/6-pin mini DIN, 5-pin DIN ......................................................................................................................................33
(V) UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS (USB) AND FIREWIRE ................................................33(VI) HARD DRIVES ..............................................................................................34CONSTRUCTION..................................................................................................35HARD DISKS ARE RIGID PLATTERS, COMPOSED OF A SUBSTRATE AND A MAGNETICMEDIUM. THE SUBSTRATE - THE PLATTER'S BASE MATERIAL - MUST BE NON-MAGNETIC AND CAPABLE OF BEING MACHINED TO A SMOOTH FINISH. IT IS MADEEITHER OF ALUMINIUM ALLOY OR A MIXTURE OF GLASS AND CERAMIC. TO ALLOWDATA STORAGE, BOTH SIDES OF EACH PLATTER ARE COATED WITH A MAGNETICMEDIUM - FORMERLY MAGNETIC OXIDE, BUT NOW, ALMOST EXCLUSIVELY, A LAYEROF METAL CALLED A THIN-FILM MEDIUM. THIS STORES DATA IN MAGNETICPATTERNS, WITH EACH PLATTER CAPABLE OF STORING A BILLION OR SO BITS PERSQUARE INCH (BPSI) OF PLATTER SURFACE..........................................................35OPERATION........................................................................................................36FORMAT.............................................................................................................38FILE SYSTEMS....................................................................................................38PERFORMANCE...................................................................................................40AV CAPABILITY...................................................................................................41CAPACITY...........................................................................................................42CAPACITY BARRIERS...........................................................................................42MR TECHNOLOGY................................................................................................44GMR TECHNOLOGY..............................................................................................44"PIXIE DUST"......................................................................................................46LONGITUDINAL RECORDING.................................................................................47PERPENDICULAR RECORDING..............................................................................47RAID..................................................................................................................49SMART...............................................................................................................50MICRODRIVE......................................................................................................52OAW TECHNOLOGY.............................................................................................54PLEDM...............................................................................................................55MILLIPEDE..........................................................................................................55
CD-ROMs .................................................................................................................................................................................56How the CD-ROM Works..........................................................................................................................................................57DVD formats and drives ............................................................................................................................................................58
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