FREE AND COMBINED CHLORINE DETERMINATION
FREE CHLORINE – monitored parameter FREE CHLORINE content can be monitored by suitable sensor (measuring probe, electrode), or it can be determined in a water sample by DPD method. At the DPD method, the sample becomes red-purple and the color intensity is compared with color scale or measured by a photometer. The results are given in mg/l Cl
or in ppm (1 mg/l=1 ppm). TOTAL CHLORINE TOTAL CHLORINE content is determined by the means introduced above, i.e. continuously by special sensor or by DPD method in a taken sample. The results are given in mg/l Cl
or in ppm (1 mg/l=1 ppm). COMBINED CHLORINE – monitored parameter It is determined as the difference between the TOTAL CHLORINE and FREE CHLORINE values: COMBINED CHLORINE = TOTAL CHLORINE - FREE CHLORINE Avoid mistakes in determination by DPD method!
Reagents for determination of free chlorine and combined chlorine are different.
It is necessary to keep the recommended time periods for color development (reaction) and reading of the value.
The sample cells used for free and total chlorine determinations cannot be interchanged.
The DPD method can be used only in concentration range given for the test-kit.
At free chlorine concentrations higher than the maximum value given for the test-kit, very rapid partial or total discoloration of the sample proceeds after addition of the reagent for free or total chlorine determination and, therefore, the determined value is false. In such cases the sample has to be diluted in a suitable proportion by distilled water or, at least, by water without any oxidants, free and combined chlorine compounds inclusive.
The results can be reliable only in the case the sampling was done properly.
The samples have to be analyzed immediately after sampling. Determination of free and combined chlorine is described in ISO 7393-2 Standard.
VALUES OF FREE AND COMBINED CHLORINE
World Health Organization in “Guidelines for safe recreational water environments, Vol. 2: Swimming pools and similar environments”, WHO 2006 Free chlorine: the limit values 1.0 or 0.5 and 3.0 mg/l, hot tubs up to 5.0 mg/l Combined chlorine:
less than 0.2 mg/l
Germany - DIN 19643-1: 1997-04 Standard Free chlorine: the limit values 0.3 and 0.6 mg/l, (hot tubs 0.7 and 1.0 mg/l) Combined chlorine:
limit value of 0.2 mg/l
USA - National Spa and Pool Institute, recommendation Free chlorine: 1.0 to 4.0 mg/l Combined chlorine: