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Non Enzymatic Browning

Non Enzymatic Browning



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Published by: hurm3 on Sep 22, 2009
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The term “browning” in relation to food refers to several different processeswhich can be divided into enzymatic and non-enzymatic browning reactions
.The most common type of non-enzymatic browning is the Maillard reaction. Itrefers to a series of chemical reactions between sugars and proteins that make foods moreappetizing
. Maillard browning of foods as a result of the Maillard reaction, and the brown pigments that form are called melanoidins. Unwanted brown colors and off- odorscan develop during extended storage of foods as baked products, dried egg whites, instantmashed potatoes, and certain food ingredients. However, not everything about theMaillard reaction is negative. The pleasant aroma and browned surfaces of baked breadand other baked goods, the development of chocolate flavors in roast beef and other cooked meats is due to this reaction. The Maillard reaction known as nonenzymatic
 browning because enzymes are not part of the reaction and its can be viewed as asequence of three chemical reactions such as condensation, rearrangement and polymerization
.The second type of non-enzymatic browning is caramelization, which is occurs whencarbohydrates or sugars in any food are heated. Caramelization results in light to dark  brown and new flavours in the product. Caramelization plays an important role inroasting of coffee and commercial caramels are added as food colours or flavours
Sample A (glucose solutions), sample B (glycine solutions), sample C (Whey proteinisolate), sample D (hydrolyzed Whey protein isolate), sample E (cookie dough @ bread)spectrophotometer and cuvettes, hot plate &boiling water bath, oven set at 200ºC, bakingtrays, filter paper, foil, frying pan and oil, small paint brushes.3.0
Murano, S. Peter. 2003. Understanding Food Science and Technology. Texas A&M University. Thomson& Wadsworth. (pg 123, 124)
3.1 Liquid Model System Browning.1.20 ml of glucose solution (A) is mixed well with 20 ml of glycine (B) in 250 ml beaker. 4 ml of the mixture is poured into the cuvett, and the absorbance (450 nm)is measured quickly. This sample is labeled as 0 minute interval. The beaker iscovered with aluminum foil.2.The beaker is heated in water bath, then at intervals (10, 20, 40, 80, 100 min) andremoved beaker from the water bath, 4ml of mixture is poured into the cuvett andthe absorbance (450 nm) is measured quickly. All used samples are kept for comparison.3.At the end of the experiment the cover is removed and the aroma is described.The smell of the product is compared with the smell of starting compounds.3.2 Solid Model System Browning1.Two points are marked on a piece of filter paper about 2 cm apart.2.One drop of glucose (A) is applied to one point and one drop of amino acid (B) tothe other. The liquid circles should expand and partly overlap. The paper is friedfor a few seconds.3.The procedure is repeated by applying one drop of glucose to one point and onedrop of each of the protein solutions (C & D) to the other. The liquid circle shouldexpand and partly overlap. The paper is fried for a few seconds.4.These papers is photocopied onto a single sheet it is included in the results.3.3 Browning of Baked Goods1.The dough is shaped into 25 g cookies as described on the packaging and isarranged on parchment paper on a cookie sheet.2.A glass rod is used to press two small lines into the cookie surface to divide itinto quarters.3.The cookie is painted half with amine solution and half with glucose as shown inlab manual. The cookie is left 5 min to let the surface dry.4.The parchment paper is marked under the cookie which one quarter got glucoseand amine solution, one just glucose, one just amine, and one nothing.
5.The cookie is baked for 5 min and the color and aroma of the samples aredescribed.3.4 Unknown Sample for Liquid Model System Browning1.4 test tubes are taken and placed each of it with ~5 ml of unknown (albumin)samples.2.1 test tube is placed in the water bath at temperature 55ºC and left it for 30 min.3.The sample is cooled in tap water.4.The absorbance is taken at 450 nm. The unheated sample is used to zero thespectrophotometer.5.The procedures are repeated to the other test tubes at temperature 60 ºC, 63 ºCand 65 ºC. 
4.1Liquid Model System BrowningFrom this experiment the result is recorded in data and figure out with graphwhich involved absorbance and time for the model systems. The aromas alsorecorded for unheated reagents and model systems.Intervals (min)Absorbance (A)00.027100.048200.053400.059800.0641000.066
Table 4.11

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