78 MACEDONIAN INSTITUTIONS UNDER THE KINGS
of which this inscription is the first epigraphic attestation, is the title of a magistrate whose exact functions are not yetclear.
Nor can we be certain about the title and, therefore, the dutiesof the second official, but there can be little doubt that he was anothercivic magistrate. Be that as it may, the document provides decisiveevidence that not only under the Romans, but already under the kings,Tymphaia was composed of a number of self-governing communi
Apparently none of them was significant enough in order toenjoy the status of
and this explains why our literary sourcesinvariably content themselves with referring to individuals from thisregion with the general
Nevertheless, themention of civic officials as executive magistrates of this apparentlyrural community should not surprise us. That such officials weretraditionally Macedonian and were not first introduced by the Romansfollows from the fact that we find them in Orestis in Roman times,although the country was no longer a part of Macedonia at the time ofthe Roman conquest and remained outside the province thereafter.Moreover, the pre-Roman origin of the politarchs has now been alsoindependently established beyond doubt, as we shall see in more detail below.
The fact that we find them occupying the same position
1 . I would tend to agree with Fanoula Papazoglou, "Politarques" 448, n. 43, whobelieves that this magistracy originated in the peripheral regions (cf. Upper Macedonia) or even perhaps in the external possessions of the Antigonids. I had aired thesame hypothesis in my communication "Politarques" 142.2 . Cf. Kalléris,
262-64, with references, bibliography and discussion.3 . For the importance of this document -if indeed it should be dated after the firstquarter of the third century and not earlier, as it seems to me more likely now- as evidence that Tymphaia-Parauaia had reverted to Macedonia after the death of Pyrrhos,who had annexed it to Epeiros, see Hatzopoulos, "Atintanes" 188;
"Villages" 155.4 . With the apparent exception of Aiginion, on which see Hammond,
I 139, n. 1. It is, however, doubtful whether, by the time we begin to have some evidence about its institutions, it still belonged administratively toMacedonia.5 . Cf.
18,6: "Ατταλός τε ό Άνδρομένεος Τυμφαϊος.6. My suggestion that the title of the second civic magistrate be restored asπολιτάρχης, an office which did not become general in Macedonia before the secondcentury B.C., is not necessarily contradicted by the fact that our inscription belongs toan earlier period. This office -unless it was created
before being generalised, perhaps existed in some Macedonian regions, and Tymphaia in Upper Macedonia may have been one of these regions. This would explain its diffusion in the lowervalley of the Aoos (Olympe) in the late third century, when this area came under Macedonian control (Papazoglou, "Politarques" 448, with my answer to Cabanes' objections in Gauthier-Hatzopoulos 37, n. 4; Cabanes,
1994, 356, indefatigablyrepeats that the politarchy in Charadros was a Roman creation, without explaining