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Water Resources Indicators

Water Resources Indicators

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Published by: bong109 on Sep 23, 2009
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Appendix A – page A1
 EEW702-SCR-RPT-001-Rev. 029 April 2008
1. This Appendix defines and describes the indicators adopted for the analysis of water sector status. As the water sector is so vast, and as the status assessment needs to cover the whole country of Viet Nam, a comprehensive but focused approach was required topresent the status. It was therefore decided to use a set of core indicators – “SnapshotIndicators” - to define water sector status in terms of its key attributes as follows:(i) Water Resources (13 indicators): quantity, international linkages, dry seasoneffects, water use, water storages and flooded areas.(ii) Groundwater (3 indicators): groundwater potential, water use, and groundwater assessment.(iii) Social (15 indicators): population, population structure, poverty, ethnicity,employment, water services (clean water, sanitation), and flood impacts.(iv) Economic (12 indicators): GDP, economic structure, sector production(industry, agriculture, irrigation, hydropower, navigation) and economic valuefor water use.(v) Environment (15 indicators): forest cover, biodiversity, conservation areas,cultural heritage areas, natural river flows, water quality, and river obstructions.2. The Indicators generally depict the current position and only a few use futureprojections. Data for the indicators comes from a wide range of sources and documents butthe information provided by the General Office of Statistics formed the basis for core datasets, such as population, area, GDP, etc. Great care has been made to ensure the data areas up to date and accurate as possible. However, it should be appreciated that for thepurpose of this review, absolute accuracy is not essential, and achieving this would haverequired many more months, if not years, of data collection and verification.
What isimportant for this report is that the data illustrates the approximate magnitude of issues and challenges, and the relativity of these between the basins covered by thisreport.
The basins to which this report applies make up more than 91% of the total area of Viet Nam (Map 1).3. The most important function of the Snapshot Indicators is as a policy tool to assistwith the strategic analysis of issues that deserve greater attention within national andprovincial water management programs. The indicators also provide a way of identifyingthose river basins that are at a critical stage with regard to any particular issue. Thisinformation is useful in identifying management priorities and may help to guide thinking onwhat is required to make policy progress. The indicators provide a useful nationalpolicymaker’s guide to the status of the water sector and water resource managementchallenges,
highlighting where each particular river basin might benefit frominvestments of funding and political attention
.4. A more detailed document containing greater explanation of the indicators, thesources of data, and data limitations is available from the project.
Appendix A – page A2
 EEW702-SCR-RPT-001-Rev. 029 April 2008
A. Surface Water Resources Snapshot1. WRI-1: National Water Indicator 
5. WRI-1 shows theaverage annual dischargefrom each basin as aproportion of the totalaverage annual dischargefrom all basins in Viet Nam,expressed as a percentage.The total surface water volume available nationallyis 829,000 million m
. TheCuu Long dominates thisIndicator - nearly 60% of the surface water availablenationally occurs in thisriver. The Red River Basinmakes the second largestcontribution - 16%. Thenext largest contribution isfrom the Dong Nai Basin at4%.6. The average annualsurface water dischargeoriginating from withinViet Nam is 311,500 millionm
, only 37% of the totaldischarge from all sources.If we only consider thiswater, then the picture of the contributions from eachriver basin changesdramatically. The Red Thai Binh Basin makes up27% of the total internalwater, and the Cuu Longonly 8%. The Dong NaiBasin contributes 9% of thiswater and the other river basins less than this.
Chart 1. WRI-1Chart 2. WRI-1b
Appendix A – page A3
 EEW702-SCR-RPT-001-Rev. 029 April 2008
2. WRI-2 & WRI-3: International Water Indicators
7. WRI-2 showsthe proportion of abasin’s averageannual surface water resources that aregenerated outside of Viet Nam. It indicatesthe dependence of this basin on externalwater inflowscompared to water generated within theBasin. Six Basinsdepend on water inflows from other countries. TheCuu Long has by far 
Bang Giang Ky CungRed -Thai BinhMaCaGianhThach HanHuongThu Bon & Vu GiaTra KhucKoneBaDong NaiSERCSe SanSre PokCuu Long
WRI-2: International Dependency Indicator
% water in basin flowing from other countries
WRI-3: International ContributionIndicator
% water in basin flowing from Viet Nam to other countries
Data not available
Chart 3. WRI-2 & WRI-3
the greatest dependency with over 95% of its water generated external to Viet Nam. Nearly40% of the Red River water originates in China. Almost 17% of the water of the Dong NaiRiver comes from Cambodia, and 19% of the Bang Giang – Ky Cung from China. Thesefigures demonstrate the importance to Viet Nam of good water management decisions inthose countries, and the need for effective cooperation on these shared resources.8. WRI-3 is the proportion of the total surface water resources of a shared internationalriver basin that comes from a river basin within Viet Nam. It indicates the dependence of other countries on water flows from Viet Nam. Water originating in the Sre Pok and theSe San basins provides significant water flows to Cambodia and then to the Mekong River,which in turn runs to the Cuu Long delta. Nearly 75% of the total discharge in the Se Sanbasin originates in Viet Nam. The corresponding figure for the Sre Pok is about 50%. Thesefigures demonstrate the importance to the lower Mekong countries of good water management decisions in Viet Nam and the need for cooperation for these sharedresources. Water from the Bang Giang-Ky Cung basin also flows to China, but there is nodata to quantify the discharge from this basin in China.
3. WRI-4: Dry Season Water Indicator 
9. Analysis was undertaken of the average dry season discharge from each basin as aproportion of the total average annual discharge from the basin, expressed as a percentage.Consistent with normal practice in Viet Nam, the length of the dry season was defined asincluding those months wherein the average discharge for that month was less than theaverage monthly discharge for all months of the year. Where a major reservoir exists in thebasin, flow figures prior to the construction of the reservoir were used to calculate “near natural” dry season discharge. To better reflect the dry season surface water availabilitysituation on the ground, dry season figures have also then been adjusted to recognise theavailability of surface water during the dry season from inter-basin transfers and fromstorages in each basin, and storages under construction that are expected to be in operationby 2010.

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