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Practical 1

Practical 1

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Published by Trishik Mohindru
Practical 1: Familiarization of the computer system and on Hand practice on power on and power off

by trishik mohindru
Practical 1: Familiarization of the computer system and on Hand practice on power on and power off

by trishik mohindru

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Published by: Trishik Mohindru on Sep 23, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Practical 1: Familiarization of the computer system andon Hand practice on power on and power off.
Hardware (computer), equipment involved in the function of a computer. Computer hardwareconsists of the components that can be physically handled. The function of these componentsis typically divided into three main categories: input, output, and storage. Components inthese categories connect to microprocessors, specifically, the computer’s central processingunit (CPU), the electronic circuitry that provides the computational ability and control of thecomputer, via wires or circuitry called a bus.Software, on the other hand, is the set of instructions a computer uses to manipulate data,such as a word-processing program or a video game. These programs are usually stored andtransferred via the computer's hardware to and from the CPU. Software also governs how thehardware is utilized; for example, how information is retrieved from a storage device. Theinteraction between the input and output hardware is controlled by software called the BasicInput Output System software (BIOS).Although microprocessors are still technically considered to be hardware, portions of their function are also associated with computer software. Since microprocessors have bothhardware and software aspects they are therefore often referred to as firmware.The main parts of a computer that we'll be focusing on are the Power Supply, Access Slots,Motherboard, Hard Drive, CPU, RAM, CD-Rom, and Floppy Drive.First, let's look at two simple diagrams of the inside of a computer.Quickly, you may recognize some parts of you computer just from these simple diagrams.The first diagram is of a tower computer, which currently is popular for the home PC. Thesecond diagram is a desktop computer, which normally is used for space as you can easily place themonitor on top of it and have the whole computer compact in one easy spot.
The power supply is vital to the computer as it is the source of power. The power supply isusually a small metal box in the top corner of a case (tower).
Access slots or expansion slots are openings in a computer where a circuit board can beinserted to add new capabilities to the computer. Examples of drives that may go here would be modems, USB drives, networking cards, video adapters, and sound cards. Theseexpansions are easy to install along with being very useful to your computer to allow you todo new things, such as network computers together.
The motherboard has been an integral part of most personal computers for more than 20years. The motherboard contains various circuit cards performing various functions all pluginto many similar sockets on a common circuit board. Each circuit card performs a uniquefunction in the computer and gets its power from the socket.The motherboard contains many circuits and slots, but let’s focuses on some of the importantones. The motherboard is home to the processor (CPU) along with the access slots and RAM.If we look at the diagram above I've labeled the parts of the motherboard that I wanted todiscuss. The objects labeled 1 are the access slots. 2 is the processor slot and 3 are slots tohold memory (RAM).
The CPU, or processor, is the heart of your computer no matter what type (PC, Server, andLaptop). There are many brands for processors such as Intel and Athlon all with differentProcessors for your computer. The CPU processes everything that your computer does,therefore the better the processor, the faster the computer.
Random Access Memory (RAM) is the form of memory contained in most computers. RAMis considered "random access" because you can access any memory cell directly if you knowthe row and column that intersect at that cell. When an application is running it stores itsinformation in the RAM. When you close the application the information is deleted from theRAM. This is why you need certain amounts of RAM to run applications. The more RAMyou have the faster your computer will be, and the more applications you'll be able to runwithout losing speed.
 Nearly every desktop computer and server in use today contains one or more hard-disk drives. These hard disks do one thing well - they store changing digital information in arelatively permanent form. They give computers the ability to remember things when the power goes out.A hard drive stores all your files and information in a permanent form unlike storing it inRAM (which is temporary). The larger your hard disk (drive) the more information and filesyou’re able to store. Today's average hard drive is 40 GB although slowly 80 GB hard drivesare becoming used more often.
The CD-Rom is quite simple, it reads CD's. CD-Rom completely stands for Compact Disk Read Only Memory. The revolution of CD's is that they hold much more data than a floppydisk, although are not as flexible when it comes to rewriting and storing personal data.Using CD-RW you can make your own CD's and use them more like a floppy disk. These are becoming more and more popular although you still need a CD-Rom to read them.
A floppy drive reads the popular floppy disk. Floppy disks are easy to use, rewritable,compact, and great for storing information. The floppy drive is simple and allows you to read,write to, and write over information stored on a floppy disk. Now you have a basic knowledge of the parts of your own PC. In the future you'll be able toread more advanced articles and have an understanding of the parts of a PC.Apart from this computer peripherals also comprises of input and output devices:
A hardware device that sends information into the CPU.Without any input devices a computer would simply be a display device and not allow usersto interact with it, much like a TV.Below is a listing of different types of computer input devices.

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