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Supplements | Human Sciences

Supplements | Human Sciences

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Published by groovylid1753
Supplements | Human Sciences

Athletes are known to use substances, commonly dietary suppleme
Supplements | Human Sciences

Athletes are known to use substances, commonly dietary suppleme

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Published by: groovylid1753 on Jan 22, 2014
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Supplements | Human Sciences
Supplements | Human Sciences Athletes are known to use substances, commonly dietary supplements, to improve performance.These are referred to as ergogenic aids. Athletes have used ergogenic aids since ancient times. Ancient Greek Olympians ate mushrooms to increase their chances to win the laurel wreath and Aztec athletes ate human hearts.The ergogenic aid industry is massive, and most sporting magazines contain advertisements for new"revolutionary" ergogenic aids that are sold as dietary supplements. The world of sports is acompetitive business. Athletes fear that others are taking something that will give them anadvantage. This means that many athletes will try out new substances and supplements on the off chance that it will give them the edge over other competitors. Forgotten in the push to excel are theunknown dangers of unproven substances and the temptations for misuse and abuse. Dietarysupplements can be harmful as well as useful.What are supplements?Prior to 1994, the term "dietary supplement" referred to products made of one or more of theessential nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and protein. Congress passed the DietarySupplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) in 1994, which expanded the definition so thatdietary supplements now include herbs, or other botanicals (except tobacco), and any dietarysubstance that can be used to supplement the diet.This has lead to many new dietary supplements, for example:herbs and other botanicalsamino acidsextracts from animal glandsfibers such as psyllium and guargumcompounds not generally recognized as foods or nutrients such as enzymes and hormone-likecompoundsThis new definition has meant that many substances that the FDA formerly classified as drugs orunapproved food additives have become readily available as dietary supplements. Thousands of dietary supplements are on the market. Many contain vitamins and minerals to supplement theamounts of these nutrients we get from the foods we eat. There are also many products on themarket that contain other substances like high-potency free amino acids, botanicals, enzymes, herbs,animal extracts, bioflavanoids, and synthetically manufactured pro-hormones melatonin anddehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which exert drug-like effects on the body.Supplement standards/regulationsThe Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) review of the safety and effectiveness of these productsis significantly less than for drugs and foods. Be cautious about using any supplement that claims totreat, prevent or cure a serious disease. The FDA has approved only a few claims for labeling, basedon a review of the scientific evidence (for example, claims about folic acid and a decreased risk of neural tube birth defects). A recent court case prevents the FDA from regulating health claims ondietary supplement labels. Read carefully and think critically about the claims you see on thepackages.Supplement manufacturers do not have to prove that their products are safe! In the past,supplement manufacturers had to prove to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) that theirproducts were safe. Under current law, however, it has become the responsibility of the FDA toprove that a supplement is unsafe. With the high number of new supplements coming onto the
 
market and the limited resources of the FDA, it is very likely that a product could cause harm beforethe FDA can take action. In addition, even after the FDA has declared a supplement unsafe, theythen have to prove that the supplement is unsafe in the court of law.Some dietary supplements may be harmful under some conditions. For example, many herbalproducts and other "natural" supplements have real and powerful pharmacological effects that cancause harmful reactions in some people or can cause dangerous interactions with prescribed orover-the-counter medicines. It does not necessarily mean that supplements marketed as "natural"are safe and without side effects.Because of the lack of regulation with dietary supplements, athletes run the risk of consuming adietary supplement that is contaminated. Steroid contamination, such as anandrolone andtestosterone, have been documented. An athlete WILL test positive for drug use if they consume adietary supplement containing banned substances such as anandrolone and testosterone. Somesubstances that could be present in the supplements are banned by the NCAA. Consuming them will jeopardize your eligibility. Visit the Gatorade(R) Sport Science Institute for more information.Protein supplementsThe list of protein supplements on the market is never ending. Protein supplements promiseanything from increased strength, energy, muscle mass, weight loss, staying fit, and obtaining leanslender bodies. Today you can hardly find a gym where protein supplements are not be used or sold.But are these supplements really beneficial, and who should take them? What are the long-termeffects?For years, research studies have been studying their effects on muscle strength, and performance.The results of the different studies are conflicting with little to no data supporting the proclaimedbenefits of protein supplements.Currently, only creatine has been shown to benefit high intensity short duration exercise. However,a few other supplements including amino acids and Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate (HMB) haveshown promise in some studies. More research is necessary to examine their effects on performanceand health. Amino AcidsThe athlete's protein source needs to provide the essential amino acids (those not synthesized inthe body), since non-essential amino acids can by made by the body when needed. The essentialamino acids can easily be obtained from the diet by consuming quality proteins such as, egg,chicken, red meats, fish, or milk etc., thus supplementation is not necessary.If supplemental amino acids are needed, the key to obtaining benefits from amino acids is the timingof consumption. Amino acids should be consumed either immediately prior to exercise, or during therecovery period 1-2 hours after exercise. A consumption of 0.1 g of essential amino acids perkilogram of body weight is recommended.REMEMBER: the amount of protein that the body can utilize is limited. Large protein consumptionin one setting that exceeds the body's requirement will be converted into fat. It will NOT increasemuscle mass.HMBHMB is derived from an amino acid called leucine. HMB is believed to prevent muscle loss withintensive resistive training. Considering muscle breakdown always occurs with exercise, preventing
 
this breakdown preserves and increases muscle mass. However, more research is necessary to verifythe effects of this supplement.CreatineWhat is creatine?Discovered in 1832, creatine is a food constituent derived from animals. The compound is primarilyfound in skeletal muscle and is synthesized in the body and transported to muscle tissues. Inmuscles, creatine is used in short bouts of intense energy production in the form of creatine-phosphate. The end-product energy release from creatine-phosphate is creatinine, which is excretedby the kidneys in the urine.Creatine in the bodyCreatine is synthesized in the liver, the kidneys, and the pancreas. After production, it is transportedin the blood to body tissues. The creatine transporter is limited in the amount of creatine it cantransport. This means that even if a person consumes more creatine, the body has a maximumamount it can use.Creatine in the diet Although, creatine is synthesized in the body, it can be obtained from dietary intake and creatinesupplementation. A good food source of creatine includes muscle meat, where 1.1 kg (about 2 1/2pounds) of beef provides 5 g of creatine. A typical American diet, containing some meat, providesapproximately 1 g of creatine daily. Creatine obtained from the diet can either be utilized as energy,or be stored in the body. For example, a 70 kg adult man can store approximately 120 g of creatine.Role in exerciseOral creatine supplementation increases muscle creatine-phosphate, which can enhanceperformance during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise . The benefit of creatinesupplementation for high intensity and short duration exercise has shown to be greater than lowintensity and long duration exercise.Creatine supplementationCreatine is supplemented to improve muscle power output primarily in high intensity and shortduration exercise. However, creatine has also been used to prevent breakdown of muscle massduring immobilization. In other words, it may prevent muscle wasting when a person is injuredand/or unable to exercise.Creatine supplementation involves a loading phase and a maintenance phase. For the best results, aloading of about 20 g of creatine monohydrate for 4 to 5 days is recommended. Thereafter, tomaintain desirable levels of creatine, 3 g of creatine monohydrate per day should be consumed. Theresponse to the supplementation varies depending on individual need. However, the best responsewill be seen the first three days of ingestion.Effect of creatinePotential benefitPowerPerform more exercise repetitionsStrengthPerform moreexercise repetitions and enhance activities of daily living performanceLean massFunctionalrecoveryOxidative stressLong-term cellular protectionSide effectsScientists are not sure whether long-term creatine supplementation is harmful to humans. Researchon long term safety has been initiated, but currently no severe health implications have beenidentified. However, water retention and decreased urine production have been reported to causeweight gain with creatine supplementation. Other side effects reported are muscle cramps,

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