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T2 CP 16 Sjharungbam Geeta Devi

T2 CP 16 Sjharungbam Geeta Devi

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Published by vinaykumarkolhe
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Published by: vinaykumarkolhe on Sep 24, 2009
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07/25/2010

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1
 
EFFECT OF QUINALPHOS ON THE MINERALIZATION OF RICE STRAW
IN SOIL
1
Sharungbam Geeta Devi,
2
B.P. Kapadnis,
2
R.L. Deopurkar and
3
S.P. Kale
 
1
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Pune. Pune
-
411007
 
2
Department of Microbiology, University of P
une. Pune
-
411007
 
3
Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic ResearchCentre. Mumbai.
-
400085
 
sharung@sify.com,bpkap@hotmail.com,
rldeopurkar@unipune.ernet.in 
skale@vsnl.com
 Mineralization of 
14
C
- labelled rice straw in flooded and moist soil treated withan organophosphorus insecticide quinalphos was studied. Quinalphos is anorganophosphorus insecticide and acaricide with contact and stomach actions.Having wide application in pest control. Non-judicious and widespread use of th
is
insecticide has lead to deterioration of the environment. Studies were done underlaboratory condition for 40 days. Experiment was conducted in triplicate for eachtreatment. Two concentrations (1mgl
-1
and 10mgl
-1
) were used for treatment.Control flasks were kept to check the mineralization of rice straw in the soil nottreated with insecticide. In all the flasks a vial containing 3ml of 1N NaOHsolution was placed. The amount of mineralization was determined by counting
the
14
CO
2
trapped in the NaOH solution using liquid scintillation counter. All theanalysis was performed in triplicates. Rapid mineralization of rice straw wasobserved in 15days in the untreated moist soil but in the flooded condition the
mineralization rate was significantly slow. It
was observed that the mineralizationof the rice straw in the soil treated with quinalphos was significantly retarded both
under moist and flooded conditions irrespective of the concentration used (1mgl
-1
and 10mgl
-1
). Retardation in mineralization was far more significant in the case of 
flooded soil. It can be inferred from the above study that quinalphos can adversely
affect the mineralization of rice straw in soil, a substrate in the environment, this
study can help in the restoration of agricultural soil.
 
 
 
2
 
KEYWORDS
 
14
C labelled rice straw, quinalphos, organophosphorus insecticide,mineralization, liquid scintillation counter (LSC)
 
INTRODUCTION
Quinalphos is an organophosphorus insecticide and acaricide with contactand stomach actions. It is one of the most widely used organophosphorusinsecticides in the world and in India particularly. Rice is one of the cropssubjected to intensive insecticide application. Soil is the ultimate sink for theinsecticides applied. These insecticide residues may interact with non-target soilmicroorganisms and their activities are responsible for transformations of the soilorganic matter. It is common practice to amend rice soil with rice straw toincrease fertility. The use of 
14
C
- labelled plant materials was suggested to obtainbetter information on the effects of pesticides on soil microorganisms and theiractivities (Anderson
1
, 1978). The decomposition of 
14
C labelled plant materialshad been studied under temperate conditions but in the tropics such studies are
fe
w (Jenkinson and Ayanaba, 1977; Neue
3
and scharpenseel (1987). In the earlier
studies using
14
C
-
labelled rice straw it was reported that in aerobic and anaerobic
clay soils treated with insecticides viz: hexachlorohexane, carbaryle andcarbofuran, mineralization of rice straw was more in aerobic than anaerobic soil.In general insecticides applied to soil at normal field rates and 10-times field rateshad no effect on either the amount of 
14
CO
2
evolved (Murthy
et al
., 1991). Samekind of study had been carried out for quinalphos an organophosphorous
insecticide.
 
MATERIAL AND METHOD
Soil from the nursery (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai) wascollected and used for the experiment. The soil was air dried and passed through a2mm sieve. The soil had following characteristics: pH 7.5; organic carbon 1.2%,sand 15%; silt 17%; clay 73%.
14
C- labelled rice straw at an application rate of 
0.25mgkg
-1
was mixed into 200g of soil in each 250ml Erlenmeyer flasks. Twosets of experiments were performed. One with the soil which received distilledwater to a 60% water holding capacity [WHC (moist)] and to the other sufficientdistilled water was added to raise the water level to 1cm above the soil surface
 
 
3
 
(flooded). Analytical grade quinalphos was dissolved in acetone and were addedto achieve 1mgl
-1
and 10mgl
-1
concentrations. Soils treated with acetone but
without insecticide served as controls.
Each vial with 1N NaOH (3ml) was placed individually on the soil in the
flasks using a support. The flasks were incubated at RT (28±3) for 40 days. Flasks
were opened every day for 5min for aeration. NaOH vials were removed andreplaced with fresh ones at regular intervals. Loss of water by evaporation wascompensated at each sampling period by adding appropriate amounts of 
water.
Radioactivity due to
14
CO
2
trapped in NaOH was determined by using a cocktail(4gm PPO, 100gm naphthalene and 900ml dioxane) and counting in a liquid
scintillation counter (Packard tricarb model 2100TR).
R
ESULTS AND DISCUSSIO
N
In untreated soil rapid mineralization of rice straw was observed in themoist soil which is not in the case of flooded soil. From the figures it was clearthat in the case of untreated moist soil maximum mineralization was observed by
15
th
 
day contrary to the extended period beyond 40 days in the case of untreated
flooded soil.
 In the moist soil it was observed that the mineralization of rice straw with
10mgl
-1
treatment showed significantly slow mineralization of rice straw ascompared to the 1mgl
-
1
treatment. Soil treated with 1mgl
-
1
quinalphos
 
showed
significant retardation in the mineralization rate as compare to the untreated soil,which was showed by its maximum level of mineralization achieved after 24
th
 
day. The same trend was observed in the flooded soil though the mi
neralization
rate is very slow as compared to moist soil. In the flooded condition the maximum
mineralization for 1mgl
-1
and 10mgl
-1
treatment was not achieved by 40
th
day. The
mineralization was significantly retarded in the case of higher concentration. Boththe concentrations of quinalphos used for the studies significantly inhibited themineralization of rice straw in both moist and flooded soil. Retardation of mineralization of rice straw was much more pronounced in the case of higher
concentration in
both moist and flooded conditions.

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