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Table Of Contents

Summary
1 Introduction
Background
Terms of reference
2 Biochemistry and metabolism
Function
Metabolism
Iron losses
Absorption
Plasma iron transport
Hepatocyte iron uptake
Iron storage and deposition
Cellular iron homeostasis
Response to increased systemic iron needs
Inborn errors of iron metabolism
The effect of infection and inflammation on iron metabolism
3 Physiological requirements
Current recommendations for iron intake in the UK
Population groups
Iron status
Establishment of reference values for markers used to assess iron status
Markers of iron status
Assessment of iron status in infants and young children
Assessment of iron overload
5 Iron in the diet
Dietary iron
Bioavailability of dietary iron
Measuring bioavailability and absorption of dietary iron
Dietary factors influencing iron absorption and bioavailability
The influence of enhancers and inhibitors of iron absorption on iron status
Fortification iron
Effect of iron fortification on iron status
Supplements
The effect of vegetarian diets on iron status
6 Health consequences of iron deficiency
Physiological consequences of iron deficiency
Causes of iron deficiency and anaemia
Iron and physical work capacity
Maternal iron status and pregnancy outcome
Cognitive, motor and behavioural development in children
7 Health consequences of high iron intake and high iron burden
Recommended upper intake levels for iron
Acute iron toxicity
Physiological consequences of high iron intakes and overload
Health consequences of high iron intakes
Iron and cancer
Meat and colorectal cancer
Iron and cardiovascular disease
Other effects of high exposures to iron
The immune response
Effects of iron deficiency on immune function
Effects of iron overload on immune function
Effects of iron supplementation on infection
Iron and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
Iron and tuberculosis (TB)
9 Dietary iron intakes and iron status of the UK population
Assessment of iron intakes
Assessment of iron status
Iron intakes of the UK population
Comparison of iron intakes with Dietary Reference Values
Relationship between iron status markers and iron intakes
Further analysis of specific age-groups in the NDNS series
Iron status of minority ethnic groups
Iron intake and status in infants and young children up to 18 months
Modelling exercise
Methods and assumptions
Results of modelling exercise
Interpretation of results from the modelling exercise
Limitations of the modelling exercise
11 Overall summary and conclusions
12 Recommendations
13 Research recommendations
References
SACN working procedures
Examples of functional iron-containing proteins in the body
International dietary reference values for iron
Existing public health advice to improve iron nutrition in the UK
Studies considered in relation to iron in the diet
Studies considered in relation to iron and cognitive function
and cardiovascular disease
Iron intakes and status of the UK population
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Sacn Iron and Health Report Web

Sacn Iron and Health Report Web

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Published by: wait on Jan 22, 2014
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01/22/2014

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