THE AGRARIAN PROGRAMME OF SOCIAL-
DEMOCRACY IN THE FIRST RUSSIAN REVOLUTlON,
First published in 1908
(confiscated); published in 1917
in book form by Zhizn i Znaniye
to the manuscript.
Checked with the text
of the 1917 edition
THE AGRARIAN PROGRAM OF SOCIAL-DEMOCRACY IN
RUSSIAN REVOLUTION, 1905-07
1. 2. 3. 4.
5. 6. 7. 8.
Landownership in European Russia
What Is the Struggle About?
The Cadet Writers Obscure the Nature of lhe Struggle
The Economic Nature of the Agrarian Revolution and Its
Two Types of Bourgeois Agrarian Evolution
Two Lines of Agrarian Programmes in the Revolution
Russia's Land Area. The Question of the Colonisation
Summary of the Economic Deductions of Chapter I
220 225 231
234 238 243 247 254
4. 5. 6.
What Was the Mistake in the Previous Agrarian Pro-
grammes of Russian Social-Democracy?
The Present Agrarian Programme of the R.S.D.L.P.
The Chief Argument of the Municipalisers Tested by
The Agrarian Programme of the Peasantry
Medieval Landownership and the Bourgeois Revolution
Why Had the Small Proprietors in Russia to Declare in
Favour of Nationalisation?
The Peasants and the Narodniks on the Nationalisation
The Mistake Made by M. Shanin and Other Advocates
272 276 284 287
3. 4. 5. 6.
What Is Nationalisation of the Land?
Pyotr Maslov Corrects Karl Marx's Rough Notes
Is It Necessary to Refute Mars in Order to Refute the
Is the Repudiation of Absolute Rent Connected with the
Programme of Municipalisation?
Criticism of Private Landownership from the Standpoint
of the Development of Capitalism
The Nationalisation of the Land and "Money" Rent
Under What Conditions Can Nationalisation Be Brought
Does Nationalisation Mean Transition to Division?
300 307 311 313
3. 4. 5. 6.
"A Guarantee Against Restoration"
Local Self-Government as a "Bulwark Against Reaction"
The Central Authority and the Consolidation of the
The Scope of the Political, and of the Agrarian Revolu-
A Peasant Revolution Without the Conquest of Power by
Is Land Nationalisation a Sufficiently Flexible Method?
332 337 344 351
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
The Rights and the Octobrists
The Right Peasants
The Non-Party Peasants
The Narodnik Intellectuals
The Trudovik Peasants (Narodniks)
368 374 380 383 388 394 400 405 414
The two years of revolution, from the autumn of 1905 to the autumn of 1907, have
furnished a vast amount of experience of historical value concerning the peasant
movement in Russia and the character and significance of the peasants' struggle for land.
Decades of so-called "peaceful" evolution (i.e., when millions of people peacefully allow
themselves to be fleeced by the upper ten thousand) can never furnish such a wealth of
material for explaining the inner workings of our social system as has been furnished in
these two years both by the direct struggle of the peasant masses against the landlords
and by the demands of the peasants, expressed with at least some degree of freedom, at
assemblies of representatives of the people. Therefore, the revision of the agrarian
programme of the Russian Social-Democrats in the light of the experience of these two
years is absolutely necessary, particularly in view of the fact that the present agrarian
programme of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party was adopted at the
Stockholm Congress in April 1906, i.e., on the eve of the first public appearance of
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