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V. I. Lenin THE AGRARIAN PROGRAMME OF SOCIALDEMOCRACY IN THE FIRST RUSSIAN REVOLUTlON, 1905-1907

V. I. Lenin THE AGRARIAN PROGRAMME OF SOCIALDEMOCRACY IN THE FIRST RUSSIAN REVOLUTlON, 1905-1907

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V. I. Lenin

THE AGRARIAN PROGRAMME OF SOCIAL-
DEMOCRACY IN THE FIRST RUSSIAN REVOLUTlON,
1905-1907

Written in November-December 1907

First published in 1908
(confiscated); published in 1917
in book form by Zhizn i Znaniye

Published according
to the manuscript.
Checked with the text
of the 1917 edition

From V. I. Lenin, Collected Works, 4th English Edition,
Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, 1972
Vol. 13, pp. 217-431.
Translated from the Russian by Bernard Isaacs
Edited by Clemens Dutt
Prepared \u00a9 for the Internet by David J. Romagnolo,d jr@cru zio .co m (September 1997)

THE AGRARIAN PROGRAM OF SOCIAL-DEMOCRACY IN
THE FIRST
RUSSIAN REVOLUTION, 1905-07

Chapter I. The Economic Basis and Nature of the Agrarian
Revolution in Russia
220

1. 2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Landownership in European Russia
What Is the Struggle About?
The Cadet Writers Obscure the Nature of lhe Struggle
The Economic Nature of the Agrarian Revolution and Its
Ideological Cloaks
Two Types of Bourgeois Agrarian Evolution
Two Lines of Agrarian Programmes in the Revolution
Russia's Land Area. The Question of the Colonisation
Summary of the Economic Deductions of Chapter I

220 225 231

234 238 243 247 254

Chapter II. The Agrarian Programmes of the R.S.D.L.P. and
Their Test in the First Revolution
255
1.
2.
3.

4. 5. 6.

7.
8.

What Was the Mistake in the Previous Agrarian Pro-
grammes of Russian Social-Democracy?
The Present Agrarian Programme of the R.S.D.L.P.
The Chief Argument of the Municipalisers Tested by
Events
The Agrarian Programme of the Peasantry
Medieval Landownership and the Bourgeois Revolution
Why Had the Small Proprietors in Russia to Declare in
Favour of Nationalisation?
The Peasants and the Narodniks on the Nationalisation
of
Allotment Land
The Mistake Made by M. Shanin and Other Advocates
of
Division

255
258
261
267

272 276 284 287

Chapter III. The Theoretical Basis of Nationalisation and of
Municipalisation
294
1.
2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7.
8.

What Is Nationalisation of the Land?
Pyotr Maslov Corrects Karl Marx's Rough Notes
Is It Necessary to Refute Mars in Order to Refute the
Narodniks?
Is the Repudiation of Absolute Rent Connected with the
Programme of Municipalisation?
Criticism of Private Landownership from the Standpoint
of the Development of Capitalism
The Nationalisation of the Land and "Money" Rent
Under What Conditions Can Nationalisation Be Brought
About?
Does Nationalisation Mean Transition to Division?

295

300 307 311 313

316
318
323
Chapter IV. Political and Tactical Considerations in
Questions
of the Agrarian Programme
325
1.
2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

7.

"A Guarantee Against Restoration"
Local Self-Government as a "Bulwark Against Reaction"
The Central Authority and the Consolidation of the
Bour-
geois State
The Scope of the Political, and of the Agrarian Revolu-
tions
A Peasant Revolution Without the Conquest of Power by
the Peasantry?
Is Land Nationalisation a Sufficiently Flexible Method?

325

332 337 344 351

355
358
8. Municipalisation of the Land and Municipal Socialism
Some Examples of the Muddle Caused by
Municipalisation
363
Chapter V. Classes and Parties in the Debate on the Agrarian
Question in the Second Duma
366

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

The Rights and the Octobrists
The Cadets
The Right Peasants
The Non-Party Peasants
The Narodnik Intellectuals
The Trudovik Peasants (Narodniks)
The Socialist-Revolutionaries
The "Nationals"
The Social-Democrats

368 374 380 383 388 394 400 405 414

Conclusion
421
POSTSCRIPT
430
NOTES
page 219
THE AGRARIAN PROGRAM OF SOCIAL-DEMOCRACY
IN THE FIRST RUSSIAN REVOLUTION, 1905-07[96]

The two years of revolution, from the autumn of 1905 to the autumn of 1907, have
furnished a vast amount of experience of historical value concerning the peasant
movement in Russia and the character and significance of the peasants' struggle for land.
Decades of so-called "peaceful" evolution (i.e., when millions of people peacefully allow
themselves to be fleeced by the upper ten thousand) can never furnish such a wealth of
material for explaining the inner workings of our social system as has been furnished in
these two years both by the direct struggle of the peasant masses against the landlords
and by the demands of the peasants, expressed with at least some degree of freedom, at
assemblies of representatives of the people. Therefore, the revision of the agrarian
programme of the Russian Social-Democrats in the light of the experience of these two
years is absolutely necessary, particularly in view of the fact that the present agrarian
programme of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party was adopted at the
Stockholm Congress in April 1906, i.e., on the eve of the first public appearance of

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