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Physics - Derivation of E = Mc2

Physics - Derivation of E = Mc2

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Published by: Lokesh on Sep 24, 2009
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10/24/2012

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1
On the Derivation of E = mc
2
Vesselin C. Noninski
vesselin.noninski@verizon.net
Abstract
Analysis is presented of the derivation in [1] of what is popularly knownas E = mc
2
. It is emphasized that once a relationship, describing a phenomenon in the stationary system, is known exactly and with certainty,any theory that would derive a different relationship regarding the same phenomenon in terms of the same stationary system should be rejected outof hand.
In a series of papers problems in the Special Theory of Relativity (STR) [1]were discussed [2-5]. Probably the most important in this series is the paper “On the Simultaneity of Two Events” which, curiously, does not contain asingle formula. In [4] a simple
 gedanken
experiment is presented whichappears to present a powerful enough argument to pinpoint the mostsignificant, crucial problem in STR – the determination in STR to presentthe seeming as real.This paper is dedicated to the analysis of the derivation claimed in [1]of the inertial mass equivalent of energy. The derivation in question,unfortunately, is found to suffer from the consequences of the mentionedcrucial problem in STR – the determination to present the seeming as real.Indeed, on p.61 of [1] it is clearly assumed that in the stationarysystem K the law of motion of an electron (say, the x-axis component) is
22
d m dt 
ε
=
where
denotes the coordinate of the slow moving electron,
is the x-axiscomponent of the electric field,
is the mass of the electron and
ε
is thecharge of the electron.According to the First Postulate – “The Principle of Relativity” – theabove law of motion will have the form
22
'
m
ξ ετ 
=
in the moving system k (electron’s own system), where
ξ 
and
τ 
are the
 
2
coordinates of the abscissa and time in the moving system k and
'
is thetransformed component of the electric field.So far all is well and good – once the First Postulate is assumed tohold good there could be no objection to writing the law of motion of theelectron in k in this way (
cf. Addendum 1
).Surprisingly, however, the further proposal in [1], namely, to applythe Second Postulate (through the application of Lorentz transformations) to“transform the above equations of motion from system k to system K”, thatis, to represent the transformed equation
22
'
m
ξ ετ 
=
, valid in k, interms of the coordinates of the stationary system K, leads to a paradoxicalresult. Thus, after application of the Lorentz transformations on
22
'
m
ξ ετ 
=
the form of that equation in terms of the coordinates of thestationary system K is claimed to be
*)
:
232
d m dt 
β ε
=
However, as already clearly emphasized above, the relationship between
,
22
d dt 
,
ε
and
can be expressed in no other way but as
22
d m dt 
ε
=
. Notice that each one of these components in the latter equation, namely
,
22
d dt 
,
ε
and
, clearly refer to the stationary system K and are not notationsfor anything else but the mass, acceleration and charge of the electron in thestationary system K in the presence of electric field in the stationary systemK. Furthermore, their magnitudes are fixed and are as defined at the outsetwhen we wrote
22
d m dt 
ε
=
.Therefore, any claim that the relationship between
,
22
d dt 
,
ε
and
can be anything else but
22
d m dt 
ε
=
should be rejected out of hand andthe theory that would bring about such claim should be discarded as invalid.Thus, a theory whose application leads to a relationship between
,
22
d dt 
,
ε
 
3
and
of, say, the form
232
d m dt 
β ε
=
while considering
3
1
β 
(derived by STR) should be discarded. In addition, obtaining
232
d m dt 
β ε
=
for 
3
1
β 
instead of 
22
d m dt 
ε
=
obviously is in aclear violation of the First Postulate – “The Principle of Relativity”. Thus, because
232
d m dt 
β ε
=
for 
3
1
β 
incorrectly describes the relationship between
,
22
d dt 
,
ε
and
, deriving, carried out in [1] (
cf. Addendum 2
), onits basis the expression for the energy of motion of the electron
, namely
2222
1
mc W mc 
=
(popularly known as E = mc
2
) is unacceptable.If, however, in an attempt to save STR, one accepts that
3
1
β 
=
thenthe desired relativistic expression for the energy of motion of the electron
2222
1
mc W mc 
=
cannot be derived (
cf. Addendum 2
).So, here we are faced with the same problem as in the case with thesimultaneity of two events, discussed in [4] – results of derivations based ontwo postulates lead to a relationship in obvious contradiction with thetruthful relationship, established as such at the onset.One can play devil’s advocate and object that in the transformedequation
22 3
d dt
εβ 
=
the form of the second derivative
22
d dt 
is the wayan observer in the moving frame k is seeing it and not the way an observer inthe stationary frame K sees it. But then, it should be definitively pointed outthat the observer in the moving frame k “sees”
22
d dt 
as
3
εβ 
and not,correctly, as
ε
only due to STR and this means that the said observer deceives himself by using STR because the form of 
22
d dt 
obtained by STR isincorrect. Any theory that claims to have physical meaning requires the

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