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Writing and LSV 4 8 Glossary

Writing and LSV 4 8 Glossary

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Published by: bgeller4936 on Sep 25, 2009
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Georgia Department of EducationGeorgiaStandards.OrgKathy Cox, State Superintendent Page 1 of 8
This glossary is intended as an aid for teachers. Terms that may be new or that may have morethan one possible meaning are defined to ensure that all middle grades English Language Artsteachers throughout the state of Georgia are using a common vocabulary.Please be mindful that knowledge of concepts or terms in isolation is neither the goal of instructionnor the type of item to expect on the CRCT. Instead, this information and/or these devices shouldbe applied as students compose or analyze both oral and written texts or as they identify andsupport comprehension of oral and written texts.
Writing Terms & Concepts
analytic judgment
An analytic judgment refers to a judgment arrivedat by breaking down a text or a portion of a textinto parts and evaluating the parts in terms of thewhole. For example, a reader could make ananalytic judgment about an author’s style bybreaking a passage down into word choice,syntax, figurative language, etc.
An anecdote is a brief story. Writers of persuasiveor expository texts often employ anecdotesdirectly related to the main idea, topic or thesis inorder to provide further description and/or explanation. Anecdotes help readers make apersonal or visual connection to the informationthat is being presented.
In persuasive or expository writing, an argumentis the main idea or point of view the author wantsto convey to the reader. It may be a particular statement, fact or example and is developedthrough logic and reasoning.
cause and effect
Cause and effect is an organizational structurethat writers employ within informational or expository text. The writer introduces a cause andthen develops the composition by detailing theeffects created or encountered from that cause.
Within a text, writers often use information or quoted passages from other sources or writers.When this occurs, authors are expected toacknowledge this information or these quotesfrom outside sources by citing them throughfootnotes, endnotes, or a bibliography. Thesecitations often follow a format found in stylemanuals like the Modern Language Association(MLA) or the American Psychological Association(APA), etc. Please note that there is no particular style manual prescribed for use with the GeorgiaPerformance Standards.
Georgia Department of EducationGeorgiaStandards.OrgKathy Cox, State Superintendent Page 2 of 8
Closure occurs when a writer provides a sense of finality or completeness to a composition.Through closure, a reader is able to come toterms with the central idea or theme of the piece,and most significant questions about a pieceshould have been answered. Writers provideclosure through a variety of techniques, likerestatement of a thesis/main idea, conveying thesignificance of the text or text ideas, coming fullcircle with an event or idea, communicating alesson learned, etc.
coherence/coherent focus
Coherence or a coherent focus refers to showinga logical, orderly, and consistent relation betweenthe main/controlling idea and the subsequent text.The reader should be able to see a clear connection between the main/controlling idea of apiece and the supporting details/ideas or plotdevelopment. In narratives, the focus is onmaintaining or shifting relationships betweenpeople, places, things, and events.
cohesive devices
Authors employ a variety of cohesive devices tocreate a coherent focus within a text. Cohesivedevices allow writers to smoothly tie together ideas or events. Good writers use a combinationof these methods and do not overuse any one of these methods alone. Some examples of cohesive devices include, but are not exclusiveto, repetition of a key word or phrase, synonyms,pronouns, transitional words or phrases, namingtechniques, parallel structure, etc.
comparison and contrast
Comparison and contrast refers to anorganizational structure (also known as similarityand difference) employed by writers in expositorytext. The writer develops a discussion of how twoor more things, events, ideas, or positions arealike and how they are different.
concrete language
Concrete language is specific, descriptivelanguage used by writers to develop plot events,setting, and characters. Concrete language helpsreaders visualize and connect to the text they areencountering.
Context would be the setting, circumstances, or communication that surrounds an idea or information and helps determine its interpretation.Context also refers to a part surrounded by thewhole (as with contextual vocabulary).
controlling idea
A controlling idea is the main idea or subjectbeing discussed within a text. The controlling ideais developed through supporting details and ideas
Georgia Department of EducationGeorgiaStandards.OrgKathy Cox, State Superintendent Page 3 of 8
that develop, explain, describe, or further clarifythat main idea or subject the writer wants to sharewith readers.
counter argument
In persuasive texts, writers present a clear perspective, position or proposal. They must alsoconsider and address possible concerns or counter arguments that a reader might have inresponse to that perspective, position, or proposal. Counter arguments are any line of reasoning that might undermine or dissuade areader from agreeing with the writer’sperspective, position, or proposal.
declines pronouns
To decline a pronoun means to alter it to indicategender and/or case or function. For example, thenominative case declines this way: 1
personsingular –
, 2
person singular –
), 3
 person singular –
person plural –
person plural –
you (or ye),
personplural – they, 3
person nonspecified –
Description is an organizational structure writersemploy in expository text. A topic is introducedand then developed through a description of features, traits, and/or examples.
Writers actively employ a variety of techniquesand devices in order to engage, or catch andhold, a reader’s attention. These devices include,but are not exclusive to, imagery, figurative wordsor phrases, humor, suspense, tension, directquotes, unusual facts or statistics, and tone.
evaluative judgment
Evaluative judgments express an attitude aboutthe value or worth of a text, object or an ideawithin that text.
Evidence is that which a writer uses to develop,support, clarify or prove an argument. Evidencemay include facts, statistics, quotes, as well asanecdotes, analogies, etc.
Explanation is an organizational structure writersemploy in expository texts. After the topic isintroduced, the writer goes on to explain his/her impressions, observations, or beliefs about thattopic.
expository text
This type of writing (sometimes referred to asinformational text) is composed to explain,describe, inform, or give information about aparticular topic. When writing expository text, an

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