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Historical and Contextual Background Of

Historical and Contextual Background Of

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Ph.DTE 805: Theories, Problems, and Issues in Technology EducationTopic : The Implementation of DTS Act By Presillas Jr.Professor : Dr. Alfonso G. PacquingStudent : Antonio P. Antonio, Summer 2006
HISTORICAL AND CONTEXTUAL BACKGROUND OFTHE DUAL TRAINING SYSTEM IN THE PHILIPPINES
Factors of skilled manpower shortage in 1982: 1. the expansion of employmentopportunities in the Middle East, 2. the slowing down of the economic growth of thecountry after more than a decade of martial law rule, 3. the growing gap between the richand the poor.This mentality had two dangerous consequence: 1.low end and unskilled workers joiningthe manpower exodus, and teaching professionals (including teachers in vocationalschool) were leaving.Civic-minded businessmen establish a vocational school that would address the social-economic problem of poverty, while at the same time developing a new training systemthat can turn out skilled workers at the soonest possible time. This project aimedaddressing two problems: widespread poverty and lack of skilled manpower.The lack of skilled manpower during the period was due to many factors: 1. increasingexport of skilled manpower, 2. increasing drop-out rates from schools, 3. increasingunemployment rate due to poor economic conditions in the country, and 4. worseningeducational system.These problems faced by the Southeast Asian Science Foundation (SEASFI) of Manilaand Hanns Seidel Foundation (HSF) of Germany hoped to address these problems byestablishing the Dualtech Training Center in 1985. Through the dual training system, theyaddressed the problem of turning out skilled workers using limited facilities and expertise by involving the end-users and industries in the training process. The vocational schoolthey established would provide its students with skills they need to get employed, thevalues they need to be world-class workers, in the process, provide them with a futurethey never imagined.Dr. Ponciano Intal, President, Philippine Institute for Developmental Studies (PIDS)recommended the following plan of action to address poverty alleviation concerns.
To produced higher employment-oriented, and decentralized growth:
1.Raise the investment rate in the Philippines.2.Accelerate agricultural development and improve food production efficiency.3.Encourage decentralized, employment-intensive industry and servicesdevelopment.4.Improve wage policy and industrial relations environment.5.Improve macroeconomic policy environment through fiscal and monetarymanagement.
To provide focused, targeted, decentralized government services:
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Ph.DTE 805: Theories, Problems, and Issues in Technology EducationTopic : The Implementation of DTS Act By Presillas Jr.Professor : Dr. Alfonso G. PacquingStudent : Antonio P. Antonio, Summer 2006
1.Effect a major redirection of the countrys development strategy and economicorientation.2.Improve government service delivery mechanisms and intra-sector allocation and prioritization of public expenditures.3.Provide direct government assistance in food and services to the subsistence poor;credit assistance to households; eliminate serious malnutrition; minimized drop-out rates at the basic education level; expand public health services.
To develop other policy initiatives to help alleviate poverty:
1.Effect greater equity bias and decentralizing public investment programming.2.Institute a more progressive income taxation system.3.improve the tenure system especially of upland farmers.Apprenticeship was used by Don Bosco Technical Institute in Canlubang inPartneship with Nestle Philippines. In 1970 the National Manpower Youth Councilnationalized the apprenticeship training system but the labor union oppose the system dueabuse of businessman who only took apprentices rather than regular employee thus itgave birth to E.O No. 111 in 1987 limiting the period to six month immersion in theindustry.The controversial Dualtech Training Center in Mantrade Makati establish in 1985 andwas pattern after the German system did not receive so much appreciation from theindustry. Dualtech started working with government school, the Pablo Borbon MemorialInstitute of Technology in Batangas City; Punlaan School in San Juan, Metro Manila; andRizal Technological and Polytechnic Institute in Morong, Rizal adopted the same system.
Developing the Filipino Model of the Dual Training System
Changes were made to adapt to local conditions (political, legal, social, and cultural).In what way is Dualtech different? The Dualtech model puts control of the system inthree hands: School, Industry, and the Government but with the school as the dominant partner which brings the other two together.Dualtech Emphasis evolved upon seeing that industry (as would be expected in anewly-industrializing economy) tended to abuse apprentices while the Government andthe labor unions, caught in the middle, prefer political and legalistic solutions that stiflesthe system’s development objective (E.O. 111). Dualtech early experiences was proventhat DTS, adapted to Philippine conditions, could work.
The New Legal Framework for Industry-based Training: The Dual Training SystemLaw of 1994
In August 1992, Cong. Belmonte of Quezon City Drafted a Dual Training SystemAct. Dual Training System is a special type of vocational training that combines two
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Ph.DTE 805: Theories, Problems, and Issues in Technology EducationTopic : The Implementation of DTS Act By Presillas Jr.Professor : Dr. Alfonso G. PacquingStudent : Antonio P. Antonio, Summer 2006
 places of learning: school and factory. The different versions of the law were reconciledand coursed through a normal process was approved and signed into law on February 25,1994 known as Dual Training System Act of 1994 as RA 7686. The law encouragesschool and establishments, to utilize the Dual System of Technical-Vocational Educationand Training by providing incentives and clearer guidelines in implementation.
 Advantages of DTS
1.learning the trade-related theory and basic skills in the school and applying it inthe factory.2.The school doesn’t need too much sophisticated equipment, since a big part of theskills learning takes place in the factory.3.The dual system trainee gets an allowance during the training.4.The school is more responsive to industries needs, since the in-school and in-planttraining are synchronized.5.The school can train more students than its normal capacity.6.Employability of the dual system graduate.Is the Dual System the same as the Apprenticeship program? NO. In the dual system,the trainee is a student sent to factories for in-plant training. In the apprenticeship system,the trainee is an apprentice employed by the company and who is given relatedtheoretical instruction, which need not be in school.
Highlights of RA 7686:
1.It recognizes the effectiveness of the Dual Training System in alleviating poverty by making vocational training more accessible to the poor.2.The law recognizes the effectiveness of the DTS in training highly skilledtechnician workers according to the specific needs of the industry.3.It acknowledge the Dual System, by combining the development of skills, thegrowth of technical and general knowledge, and the formation of values of trainees.
Three major issues in DTS implementation.
1.The possibilities that the dual training system will be abused like theapprenticeship system (which became a cheap labor scheme).2.The expense to be incurred in developing the standards of vocational schools andthe training capabilities of establishments where the trainees will be trained.3.The graduates might go abroad after the training or will be to specialize in termsof skills that they will be “condemned” to one job during lifetime.Presillas Jr. focus his study in five specific groups. They are the following:1.Faculty members of schools implementing the dual system.2.Officials of industrial establishments with dual training system trainees.
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