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Lecture 4

Lecture 4

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Published by Mohamed Maher
Lecture 4
Lecture 4

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Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: Mohamed Maher on Jan 24, 2014
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Lecture: Pressure Safety
A.IntroductionB.Existing LegislationC.Hazards and Their Control1.Pressure vessel rupture2.Common causes of explosions in pressure vessels3.Control measures4.Precautions for entering boilers and furnaces5.Safety in the use of boilers5.1Automatically controlled boilers5.2Failure of automatic controls5.3Training of boiler attendantsD.Safety in the Use of Air Vessels1.Air receive2.Dynamic pressure hazards3.Excessive pressures from nonthermal sources4.Safeguards against air receiver explosionE.Whipping of Hoses and LinesF.Water HammeG.Testing of Pressure SystemH.ReferencesI.Useful Addresses
Boiler and pressure vessels have many potential hazards in common, as well ashazards unique to their specific operations. These vessels hold gases, vapors, liquids,and solids at various temperatures and pressures, ranging from almost a full vacuum to pressures of thousands of pounds per square inch. In some applications, extreme pressure and temperature changes may occur in a system in rapid succession, imposingspecial strains.Major boilers and pressure vessels explosions, because of their spectacular nature.The problem is to ensure the integrity reliability throughout the working lives of all boilers and pressure vessels and, in the event of any defect occurring, to limit itsdamaging effects.
B.Existing Legislation
The existing legislation on pressure equipment in Hong Kong is covered by theBoilers and Pressure Vessels Ordinance Chapter 56. The ordinance requires all boilers, pressure vessels to be registered with the Boilers and Pressure Vessels Authority.The following particulars shall be recorded by the Authority in the register of the boilers and pressure vessels in the respect of each registered boiler or pressure vessel:1.
the name and address of the owner for the time being of the boiler or pressurevessel;2.
except in the case of a boiler or pressure vessel that is design so as to betransportable from one place to another; the address at which the boiler or pressurevessel is installed;3.
the class or type of the boiler or pressure vessels;4.
the registration number of the boiler or pressure vessel;5.
the maximum permissible working pressure of the boiler or pressure vessel notifiedto him in a accordance with section 47 (2);6.
the maximum permissible working pressure of the boiler or pressure vesselspecified in the current certificate of fitness issued in the respect of the boiler or  pressure vessel if the pressure therein specified differs from the maximum permissible working pressure notified to him in accordance with section 47 (2) or entered in the register pursuant to paragraph (b);7.
the date on which each certificate of fitness issued in respect of the boiler or  pressure vessel was issued; and8.
the making by the Authority of an order under section 32 in respect of the boiler or  pressure vessel and the date (if any) on which the same ceased to be in force.
Boiler means any closed vessel in which for any purpose steam is generated under  pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and also means any economizer used to heatwater being fed into any such vessel, any superheater used for heating steam and anyfitting directly attached to such vessel that is wholly or partly under pressure whensteam is shut off, and any vessel in which oil is heated at a pressure greater thanatmospheric pressure.
Pressure Vessel means a steam receiver, an air receiver and a portable gas generator.
Steam Receiver means any vessel or apparatus (other than a boiler, a
steam container, asteam pipe or coil, or a
 part of a
 prime-mover ) used for containing steam under  pressure great than atmospheric pressure;
Steam Container means any vessel or apparatus (other than a steam pipe or coil)constructed with a permanent outlet into the atmosphere or into a space where the pressure does not exceed atmospheric pressure, and through which steam is passed atatmospheric pressure or at approximately that pressure for the purpose of heating, boiling, drying, evaporating or other similar purpose.
Air Receiver means:a.any vessel (other than a pipe or coil, or a accessory fitting or part of a Compressor)for containing compressed air and which is connected with an air compression plant. b.any fixed vessel for containing compressed air or compressed exhaust gases that isuse for the purpose of 
starting an internal combustion engine;c.any fixed or portable vessel (not being part of a spraying pistol) used for the purpose of spraying, by means of compressed air, any paint, varnish lacquer of similar material; andd.any pressurized fuel container.
Portable Gas Generator means a vessel, not being a part of a fixed installation, withinwhich acetylene gas is generated by the admixture of calcium carbide and water.
C. Hazards and their Control
1.Pressure vessel rupture The rupture of a pressure vessel occurs when the total expansive force acting tocause the rupture exceeds the vessel’s strength. The process by which a boiler ruptureoccurs can be described as follows: when heat is applied to water in the boiler, itstemperature increases to the boiling point, causing it to evaporate, and the steam toexert pressure. Generally the steam leaves the boiler and is replaced by new supplies of water. When the input of heat from the boiler equals that removed by the system flow,equilibrium is reached and pressure remains constant. If steam flow output is preventedor restricted so it is inadequate to remove all the excess heat supplied, the temperature

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