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552Judgment, Choices and Reasoning Fallacies

552Judgment, Choices and Reasoning Fallacies

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Published by numbersense
thinking and reasoning lecture plg 552
thinking and reasoning lecture plg 552

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Published by: numbersense on Jan 31, 2008
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09/26/2009

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Judgment,ChoicesandReasoning Fallacies
Judgment and the elements of Reasoning
 –Analysis of reasoning –Analysis of judgment –Relation of concept and judgment –Order of development of the cognitiveprocesses –Judgment as primitive cognitive activity
 
 
Analysis of reasoning
reasoning is present from the beginning of conscious lifein the human being,involving perception and memory and imagination andconceptionmay define it broadly and provisionally as
 purposivethinking 
, that is to say, thinking carried on in the interestsof some plan which we wish to execute, some problemwhich we wish to solve, some difficulty which we wish tosurmount.to involve the selection of certain ideas out of all thosesupplied us by the problem, the manipulation of theseideas in accordance with previously acquired habits, andthe attainment of the solution by a proper combination of these two processes.
 
 
Analysis of judgment
A judgment, when put into words, is what logicians call aproposition, and what grammarians call a sentence.that a process of reasoning, such as that of our illustration, containsconcepts combined in the form of judgments. judgment is a new mental operation to which we must now devoteour attention.Judgment and verbal expression; if the judgment is in any measureequivalent to a proposition or a sentence, we ought to gainassistance, in the distinguishing of its principal forms, from theclassifications of the grammarians and logiciansIn the judgment, " the book is heavy," we have the concept heavyunited to the concept bookverbal precipitates of judgment we seem then to have two or moreideas mentally united in meanings which may imply either thepostulated union or severance of the objects to which they refer 

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