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From Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

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OSI model
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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This box:view 
The
Open System Interconnection Reference Model
(OSI Reference Model or 
OSI Model
) is anabstract description for layered communications and computer  
 design. It wasdeveloped as part of the
 (OSI) initiative.
 In its most basic form,
 
it divides network architecture into seven layers which, from top to bottom, are the Application,Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data-Link, and Physical Layers. It is therefore oftenreferred to as the
OSI Seven Layer Model
.A layer is a collection of conceptually similar functions that provide services to the layer above it andreceives service from the layer below it. On each layer an
instance
provides services to the instancesat the layer above and requests service from the layer below. For example, a layer that provides error-free communications across a network provides the path needed by applications above it, while itcalls the next lower layer to send and receive packets that make up the contents of the path.Conceptually two instances at one layer are connected by a horizontal protocol connection on thatlayer.
Communication in the OSI-Model (Example with layers 3 to 5)
Contents
 
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
 
]
History
In 1977, work on a layered model of network architecture was started and the 
(ISO) began to develop its OSI framework architecture. OSIhas two major components: an abstract model of networking, called the Basic Reference Model or seven-layer model, and a set of specific protocols.Note: The standard documents that describe the OSI model can be freely downloaded from the ITU-Tas the
X.200
-series of recommendations.
 A number of the protocol specifications are also availableas part of the ITU-T X series. The equivalent ISO and ISO/IEC standards for the OSI model areavailable from ISO, but only some of them at no charge.
All aspects of OSI design evolved from experiences with the 
network, which alsoinfluenced Internet design. The new design was documented in ISO 7498 and its various addenda. Inthis model, a networking system is divided into layers. Within each layer, one or more entitiesimplement its functionality. Each entity interacts directly only with the layer immediately beneath it,and provides facilities for use by the layer above it.Protocols enable an entity in one host to interact with a corresponding entity at the same layer inanother host. Service definitions abstractly describe the functionality provided to an (N)-layer by an(N-1) layer, where N is one of the seven layers of protocols operating in the local host.[
 
]
Description of OSI layers
OSI ModelData unitLayerFunctionHostlayers
Data7. 
 Network process to application
6.
Data representation and encryption
5.
Interhost communication
Segment4. 
End-to-end connections and reliability

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