Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
31Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Characteristics of a Photo Diode

Characteristics of a Photo Diode

Ratings: (0)|Views: 5,957|Likes:
Published by MH Hisyam

More info:

Published by: MH Hisyam on Sep 25, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/11/2013

pdf

text

original

 
7
Characteristics of a Photodiode
Spectral Response
The magnitude of the photocurrent generated by a photodiode isdependent upon the wavelength of the incident light. Siliconphotodiodes exhibit a response from the ultraviolet through the visibleand into the near infrared part of the spectrum. The spectral responsepeaks in the near infrared region between 800nm and 950 nm. Theshape of the spectral response curve, especially in the blue and UVpart of the spectrum, can be altered by choosing among a number ofmanufacturing processes developed at PerkinElmer. An example ofthis is the “blue enhanced” photodiode whose sensitivity to light fromthe short wavelength part of the spectrum has been increased. Opticalfilters can also be added to change the spectral response.There are several popular ways to characterize the spectral response,following are brief descriptions of the most common ones.
Radiometric Sensitivity - S
R
Sr is the ratio of the short-circuit photocurrent generated by thephotodiode (A-amps) divided by the energy of the incident light (W-watts). For photodiodes made with the VTS process, a typicalradiometric sensitivity of 0.6 A/W can be expected at the peak spectralresponse wavelength of 925 nm. Curves of this measure of sensitivityare often plotted with the S
R
normalized in order to show relativespectral response.S
R
= I
SC
 /
Φ
where:S
R
= radiometric sensitivity (A/W)I
SC
= short circuit photocurrent (A)
Φ
= radiant flux (W)
Responsivity - Re
Re is a measure of sensitivity which takes into account the active areaof the photodiode chip. This parameter is obtained by dividing theshort-circuit light current (mA-microamps) by the energy of the light perunit area (µW/cm
2
).R
e
= I
SC
 /E
e
where:R
e
= responsivity (µA/[µW/cm
2
])I
SC
= short circuit photocurrent (µA)E
e
= irradiance (µW/cm
2
)The VTP1188S has a typical responsivity of 0.15 µA/(µW/cm
2
) @ 940nm.
Quantum Efficiency - Q.E.
If the photodiode operated at 100% efficiency each photon of lightstriking the detector would result in one electron being added to thephotocurrent. The Q.E. relates, as a percentage, the energy perphoton and the quantum yield, electrons per photon.Q.E. = (124 S
R
)/
λ
where:Q.E. = quantum efficiency (%)S
R
= radiometric sensitivity (A/W)
λ
= wavelength of light (micrometer)The VTP process produces devices with a Q.E. of 75% @ 940nm.The responsivity of a silicon photodiode varies with temperaturedependent upon the wavelength of the light. Curves in the data sheetsection show plots of the responsivity temperature coefficient versuswavelength of light. The temperature coefficient is negative at theshorter wavelength of light and becomes positive in the infrared part ofthe spectrum. Of interest is the fact that for most diodes there is arange of wavelengths where the temperature coefficient is effectivelyzero.
 
8
Characteristics of a Photodiode
Sensitivity
One of the standard methods used to specify the sensitivity of aphotodiode is to state its short circuit photocurrent (I
SC
) at a given lightlevel from a well defined light source. The most commonly used sourceis an incandescent tungsten lamp running at a color temperature at2850 K. At 100 fc, I
SC
can vary over a range from microamps tomilliamps depending on chip size and package employed.Photodiodes have unity internal gain. In order to increase theirsensitivity to light one can either increase the active area of thephotodiode chip itself or use lenses to increase the effective activearea. The relationship between active area and sensitivity tends to belinear: doubling the active area doubles the output current.
Linearity
Shown below is the equivalent circuit for a photodiode. Under zeroapplied reverse bias the photocurrent will divide between the internal junction or shunt resistance and the external load resistance.whereI
P
= light generated photocurrentV
F
= forward voltage drop across diodeI
F
= forward current through diodeI
N
= noise currentC
J
= junction capacitanceR
SH
= shunt resistanceI
SH
= shunt currentR
S
= series resistanceV
O
= output voltageI
O
= output currentFor an ideal photodiode, R
S
= 0 and R
SH
= infinity.I
O
= I
P
– I
F
If the external terminals are shorted together a short circuitphotocurrent I
SC
will flow. When this happens, for the ideal case, V
F
=0.I
SC
= I
P
(ideal case)For the real world case:I
O
= I
P
– I
F
– I
SH
I
SC
= I
P
– I
SAT
– I
SC
R
S
 / R
SH
where:KT/q = 0.026 @ 25°Cand since V
O
= 0, thus: V
F
= I
SC
R
S
I
SC
= I
P
– I
SAT
– (I
SC
R
S
)/ R
SH
For the non ideal case the second and third term of the above equationlimit the linearity. In order to achieve good linearity R
S
should be madeas small as possible and R
SH
as large as possible.Despite these shortcomings the short circuit light current is often quitelinear over a wide range of light intensities. Excellent linearity over 6 to9 decades of light intensity can be expected. As a consequence of thisbehavior photodiodes are often used in applications where absolutemeasurement of light intensity is required.At low light levels linearity is limited by the dark (or shunt) resistanceand the noise current. At high levels of irradiance linearity is limited bythe internal series resistance of the photodiode.
Dark Current (I
D
)
The dark current is the leakage current that flows when the photodiodeis in the dark and a reverse voltage is applied across the junction. Thisvoltage is applied across the junction. This voltage may be as low as10 mV or as high as 50 V and the dark currents may vary from pA to
µ
A depending upon the junction area and the process used. Darkcurrent is always specified at a particular value of reverse appliedvoltage.The dark current is temperature dependent. The rule of thumb is thatthe dark current will approximately double for every 10°C increase inambient temperature. However, specific diode types can varyconsiderably from this relationship.
e
qV
F
KT
  ⁄  
1
( )
e
qI
SC
R
S
( )
KT
  ⁄  
1
( )
 
9
Characteristics of a Photodiode
Shunt Resistance (R
SH
)
The shunt resistance, or dynamic junction resistance at zero voltage isdetermined by applying a small voltage to the photodiode, typically 10mV, and measuring the resulting current. Values for the shuntresistance can vary from 100k to 100G ohms. The noise performanceand the linearity of the short circuit photocurrent are directly related tothe value of the shunt resistance. This parameter is voltage dependentbut still is quite useful in calculating the offset gain (G
OS
= 1 + R
F
 /R
SH
) in transimpedance amplifier circuits.The shunt resistance is dependent on the active area of the diode chipand on the type of processing used. It is also temperature dependent,decreasing with increasing temperature.
Junction Capacitance (C
J
)
A capacitance is associated with the depletion region which exists atthe P-N junction. The response time of a photodiode is dependent to alarge extent upon the product of the junction capacitance and theexternal load resistor.The junction capacitance increases with increasing junction area of thephotodiode chip. It is also a function of any reverse voltage appliedacross the photodiode. When a reverse voltage is applied the depletionlayer will expand and the junction capacitance will decrease. Thecapacitance will continue to decrease with increasing reverse appliedvoltage until the depletion region expands to the back surface of thephotodiode chip at which point the diode’s capacitance becomesnearly constant.
Reverse Breakdown Voltage (V
BR
)
This is the maximum reverse voltage that can safely be applied acrossthe photodiode before breakdown occurs at the junction. Thebreakdown voltage is determined by the process but is a screenedparameter. The diode should never be exposed to V
BR
even for a shortperiod of time since permanent damage can occur. Diodes normallyintended for photovoltaic operation do not have this parameterspecified. Typical values for V
BR
range from 5V to over 100V.
Open Circuit Voltage (V
OC
)
The open circuit voltage is the voltage generated by the photodiodewhen the photocurrent is equal to zero. V
OC
varies logarithmically withlight. V
OC
is typically in the range of 300 mV to 450 mV @ 100 fc. Dueto its large temperature coefficient V
OC
is not recommended as anaccurate measure of light level.
Response Time
A photodiode takes a certain amount of time to respond to a suddenchange in light levels. It is common practice to express to responsetime in terms of the rise time (t
R
) or the fall time (t
F
) where:t
R
= The time required for the output to rise from 10% to 90% ofits final value.t
F
= The time required for the output to fall from 90% to 10% ofits on state value.The response time of a photodiode depends upon many factors,including the wavelength of the light, the value of the applied voltageacross the diode (since this has a major effect of the junctioncapacitance), and the load resistance.Characteristic curves given with each process show that the non-saturated response time is largely dependent upon the product of the junction capacitance and load resistance. However, when this productis small, other effects become significant and limit the response time.For a more complete treatment of this subject the interested reader isreferred to Application Note #3.
Noise Current (I
N
)
A photodiode will act as a source for electrical noise and generate anoise current (I
N
). The noise current will limit the usefulness of thephotodiode at very low light levels where the magnitude of the noiseapproached that of the signal photocurrent. The amount of noisegenerated is dependent upon the characteristics of the photodiode andthe operating conditions.

Activity (31)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Ainy Haziyah liked this
MH Hisyam liked this
Fatima Naaz liked this
Sharmili Billi liked this
Varun Rajan liked this
Yasser Yosry liked this
Phanie Vency liked this
Eduardo Hidalgo liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->