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Maharani Vijyalakshmi (a Newari Poem)

Maharani Vijyalakshmi (a Newari Poem)

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Published by Ravi
Historical analysis of a Newari Poem
Historical analysis of a Newari Poem

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: Ravi on Sep 26, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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10/15/2013

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…dxf/fgL laHofnIdLÚ afv+Do]of P]ltxfl;s ljZn]if0f
– /lj zfSog]kfnefiff ;flxToo\sfJo ljwf t:;s+ k'nf+h" . Gxfkf Gxfkf dg" to\;+yLyL 36gf, kl/l:ylt, b[io cflb+lkHjMu'  vFoft Do]of ?ko\xfnfM Go+sn . psy+xfnfM Go+sLu' Do]dWo]o\5u" lsl;dof Do]afv+Do]vM . y'lsof ljz]iftf x]Gxfkf h'ofj+u'vFDo]xfnfM afv+y] +sg]u'vM . b'Mv;'vof afv+, P]ltxfl;s 36gf, GoFsFafv+, pkf:o b]jb]jLof u'0f j nLnfjtf/of afv+y] +sg]u' vM . afv+Do]kfZrfTo ;flxToof
Ballad
gfk nueu HjMnfM . afv+Do]sfJo h" u'ln+zf:qLo /fu tfn jf nf]sn;o\cfwfl/t ofgfM xfn]l5+s bo\sftO . ;j{;fwf/0fof cleJolQmsy+lkb+u'afv+Do]o\pu'O{of ;fdflhs, /fhg}lts, wfld{s j c;Gtf]if ljb|f]xof ;M g+YjofRj+u'b'. s?0f /; k|wfgu'…dxf/fgL laHofnIdLÚ zLif{sof afv+Do]5k'P]ltxfl;s afv+Do]vM . h'h'/0faxfb'/ zfx -/fHosfn lj;+!*#$–!*%%_of xTof h'Ow' +sfM dxf/fgL ljHofnIdL ;tL j+u'36gfo\cfwfl/t ofgfM y'u'Do]lrgftMu'vM . Do]Rjldof gf+j RjMu'ltlyldlt GXoygftMu' db'. Yj Do]of P]ltxfl;s dxTj j sfJofTds ;f}Gbo{ { +k|efljt h'ofM Yj x]Do]of lnwF;fo\  v08sfJo
/fh]Zj/L
-!)(*_ RjMu'b'. afv+Do]of ;f/f+z y'sy+b' h'h'/0faxfb'/ zfx+dxf/fgL ljHofnIdLoft x]nDa'O lkltgf5\jn . t' +afrfo\nM TjgfM, tk/L gofM k|hf+bo\sfAo" u'  rf}3/fo\RjgfM b'Mv;'v+hLjg xgfRjg . cHofMu'cj:yfo\:jfdL h'h'dGt, ;tL laHofo\dfn wsfM va/ Yo+sjn . dxf/fgL ;tL jg]t o] Fb]zo\lnxf+jn . ;Sjo\Yo+sfM jh|of]lugLoft n' Fofu'5lnsly
1
5fn . jh|of]lugL BMyfo\afh+yfsn . ;Sjof k+r k|df0f xl/jL/l;+k|wfgof 5] Fo\;Ddfgk" j{s kfxf+ofgftn . cg+lnxf+jofM rf+u'gf/fo0foft bfogf z+v
2
5fn . cg+ u'Xo]Zj/LO n' Fof 5q, kz'kltO n' Fof RjfDjM 5fn . efMtoft :jrfM rfMx'nfM kfln EjMk'n . cg+jofM hojfu]Zj/Loft n' Fof e'O tofM tfof]b]5fn . cn]o] Fb]zo\b'xf+jofM sfo\uLjf{0fo' 4 j DXofo\nflgys' +of VjfM 5sM :jo\u'OR5f oft . t/ Wjfvfklt+toftMlk+rk/f;Lto\;+x's'd db'wsfM b'td5\jM .
3
dxf/fgL g'uM bfofM Vjn . h'h'j k|hfoft cflzsf jrg NxfgfMln dxf/fgL l;FkFo\yxf+jgfM ;tL jg . Yj b[io vgfM cgRj+lk+k|hfu0f ;sn] +Vjn . -s;fMÙ !!)#M &*–*)_Yj Do]of ;flxlTos ljZn]if0f 8f= hgsnfn j}B+ofgfbLu'b'-!!@@Ù @&#–&%_ . y'u'Rj;'O g]kfMof Oltxf;ln;]  afv+Do]o\RjoftMu'vFu'lnt HjMnfM, Yj Do]of ljZj;gLotf u'lnt b'wsfM t'ngfTds cWoog ofo\u'h'O .
dxf/fgL ljHofnIdL
/0faxfb'/ zfxof tMDxdl5 /fgLlk+b'. dxf/fgL ljHofnIdL w}Dx /0faxfb'/ zfxof tMlwsMDx snfM vM . d]lk+/fgLlk+  ;'j0f{k|ef, sflGtjtL, rGb|fjtL j nlntlqk'/f;'Gb/L vM . :joDe" O 5Dx ld;fln;]gd:sf/ ofgfRj+u'd'b|fo\/0faxfb'/ zfxof d" lt{b'. pu'd" lt{of kfbkL7o\…>L # /0faxfb'/ zfx dxf/flg hf]udfofÚ wsfM clen]v lsoftMu'b' -zfSoÙ !)(*M @^@_ . y'Dx hf]udfofof af/]d]u'vF ;Ldb'lg . ljHofnIdL u'NdLof /fhf lzjl;+xof 5o\vM -cfrfo{Ù !)*%M (@_ . jof wfTy] +of gf+  ljBfnIdL vM .
4
l3ld/]ofsy+ljBfnIdLoft ljBfjtL g+wfo\u'ofM -!)(*Ù $!_ . t/ ;'Gb/fgGb+yfo\yf;o\ 
/fHonIdL
wsfMRjoftMu'b'-jh|frfo{Ù !)*@M !^^,!^*_ . ljBfnIdLof hGd zs ;+jt\!&)$ -lj=;+= !*#(_ df3 s[i0f b'ltofv'Gx'h" u'vM -kGtÙ !!)%M @&_ . /0faxfb'/ zfxln;]jof Olxkf lj=;+= !*$^ ;fno\h" u'vM -g]kfnLÙ !)*#M @#–@$, e08f/LÙ !!)(M#**_ . Olxkf h'Ow' +sfM
/fh/fh]Zj/L
gfd+k|Voft h" u'vM -zdf{Ù !)(^M @$&_ .
5
t/ nfo\08g+nlntlqk'/f;'Gb/Loft /0faxfb'/ zfxof tMlwsMDx snfM woftMu' 
(1096; 72)
 
kfo\l5 dh" . cem nLgxf8{ +bsn]rLlwsMDx /vf}6L
(Youngest
 
Concubine)
 woftMu' 
(1094; 230)
tMw+u'uNtL vM ./fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jLof yMu'gf+c+lst ;'sL d'b|f g+lkb+u'b'u'sL z;+!&!^ -g];+(!$_ c+lst ofgftMu'b'-hf]zLÙ !!)%M !)%_ .
/fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jLof x]nDa'lgjf{;g
ld> a|fDx0fof DXofo\sflGtjtLln;]/0faxfb'/ zfxof Olxkf h'ofM uLjf{0fo' 4 ljqmd zfx hGd h'n . uLjf{0fo' 4oft ;Qf nMNxfgfM ;Gof; u|x0f ofgfM :jfdL lgu' {0ffgGb jf lgjf{0ffgGb h'ofM Ujno\Rj+jg . uLjf{0fo'4of gfoa h'ofM
!_ h'h'lk+;jf/L h'Oan]rf]kbf/+GXoMg]HjgfjgLu'/fhlrGx . Yj :jof+GXoM g+jh|of]lugLoft lj;+!*%^ dfu{z'Sn bzdL z'qmjf/ tf]/0f ;lxtof n' Fof Wjfvf bo\sfM b]5fMu'  vM -jh|frfo{j >]i7Ù !!))M #)^–*_ . @_ hjo\Dx't'b'u'b'n{e cd" Nou'd+unsf/L z+v #_ nLgxf8{h' +dxf/fgL+cb{nLto\t WjfvfklQ+t}gfy ofgfM ;'oft g+b]o\b'g]b't5\jo\bOdv'u'cfb]z lan wsfM cg'jfb ofgfbLu' 
(1094: 232)
 
kfo\l5 dh" .
 
$_ g]kfnefiffo\…bÚ cfvM lxnfM …hÚ h'Ou'lgod b'. uy]ls kbf{ 
>
khf{, ljBfw/L
>
ljHof;M . l3ld/]h' +g+g]kfnefiffof d" nkf7 laofbLan]…laHHofnIdLÚ woftMu'-!)(*Ù %&_b';f g]kfnL cg'jfbo\…ljBfnIdLÚ x]RjofbLu'b'-!)(*Ù %*_ . %_ yg+Sjo\dxf/fgL ljHofnIdLoft /fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jL wsfM pNn]v ofo\u'h'O .
 
/fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jL+zf;g GXofsn . sflGtjtL ;Lw' +sfM /0faxfb'/ zfx jFo\y] +h'n . BMof d" lt{, b]uMt :o+sn, cdfgjLo Hoft ofgfh'n . zf;g Joj:yfo\tKo+s x:tIf]k ofgfxn . /fHoTofu ofo\w' +s" Dx]:of+xfsg+x:tIf]k ofgfxMu'ln+bfdf]b/ kf08]  nufotof ef/bf/to\;+joft agf/;o\lkltgf5\jn . /fh/fh]Zj/L g+efMtgfk agf/;o\ jg . cg's'n jftfj/0f :jofM /fh/fh]Zj/L o] Fo\jofM xfsg+uLjf{0fo' 4of gfoa h'n, bfdf]b/ kf08]oft d" n sfhL bo\sn . bSj k|aGw ldn]ofgfM /0faxfb'/ zfx g+agf/;+lnxf+jn . yMt lkTo' +Dx bfdf]b/ kf08]oft x]d" n sfhL bo\sftMu'vgfM clts+t+rfn . /fh/fh]Zj/Loft o] F :jof+!@ dfOn pQ/o\l;Gw'kfNrf]s lhNnfof x]nDa'ufdo\lgjf{l;t ofgf5\jn . lkltg]GXoM Gxfkf+/fh/fh]Zj/Loft xg'dfgWjfvf /fhb/jf/+xofM gf/fo0flxltof 5vf 5] Fo\/0fjL/l;+x a:g]tof /]vb]vo\tn, cg+ln !))Dx l;kfxLto\;+lgu/fgL ofgfM x]nDa'O 5\jMu'vM -cfrfo{Ù !)*%M !@!_ . u'ln+Oltxf;sf/to\;+/0faxfb'/ zfxof lg/+s'z Jojxf/ j :qLnDk6 rl/q vgfM lbSs rfofM yM x]x]nDa'O Rj+j+u'wsfM RjoftMu'b' -e08f/LÙ !!)(M #(*_ . t/ bfdf]b/ kf08]oft d" n sfhL bo\s" u'ln+  x]x]nDa'O lkltgf5\jMu'ts{ cKjM ljZj;gLo h" . pan]g]kfnL ld;flk+t Nxf;fo\5\jo\u'nL aGb]h toftMu'vM, ag]Hofof nflu Nxf;f jgLlk+g]kfMldlk+;'gf+x]snfM Ajgfo+s]db'-g]kfnÙ !!)#M @)^_ . t/ ld;flk+t 5' +tMw+u'ck/fwof ;hfFo aLdfn wfM;f Nxf;fo\lkltgf5\jOu'vM . axfb'/ zfxof vFGogfM /fh]Gb|nIdLoft ljif gs]u'if8\oGq ofMu'cleof]uo\b08 aLt tgx' Fsf]6] ld;f dy'/foft Nxf;fo\lkltgf5\jMu'  vM -g]kfnLÙ !)*#M !!#_ . t/ /fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jLoft ;Fb]zo\nf dv', a? ;Fo\to\u'x]uf+x]nDa'O lgjf{l;t oft . agf/;+g]kfM lnxf+jMan]/0faxfb'/ zfxof nFkg]u'Hof ofMu'cleof]uo\kfgs'df/L gf+of ld;foft g+uwf uo\sfM x]nDa'O lkltgf5\jMu'vM - jh|frfo{Ù !)*@M $%, !*^_ . eLd;]g yfkfof cfTdxTof w' +sfM h]7L j dflxnL d'lvgLlk+t g+anhˆtL+x]nDa'O lkTo' +u'vM - g]kfn b]zsf]Oltxf;Ù !)(#M ^_ .
/0faxfb'/ zfxof xTof j /fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jL ;tL j+u' 
/0faxfb'/ zfxof xTof jof x]lrl/df+kfv] +b'Dx lshf z]/axfb'/ zfx+ofMu'vM . c+u|  ]htln;]h" u';lGwkq j c+u|  ]hto\t Jofkf/ ofo\t clVtof/L Ao" u'ljifo; 5nkmn ofo\t sfhL lqe'jg vjf;of 5] Fo\Rj+u'srx/LO pu'xTof h" u'vM . xTof h" u'lb+ lj;+!*^# j}zfv jlb & zlgjf/ vM
(Regmi; 1095: 162)
 
.
6
Yj xTofsf08 eLd;]g yfkfof yM zq'to\t ;dfKt ofo\u'nflu ;'j0f{df}sf ;flat h'n . yM zq'lk+ljb'/ zfx, lqe'jg vjf;, g/l;+x u'?Ë, z]/axfb'/ zfx, kfNkfof h'h'  k[YjLkfn ;]gof kl/jf/ bSjl;t HjgfM ;sl;u';DklQ hkmt ofgfM &&Dx]l;t :ofgf5\jn -cfrfo{Ù !)*%M !@^,
Regmi;1095: 170)
. yM zlQmzfnL h'Ou'nFo\k+uM jOu'tfo\sfM /fh/fh]Zj/L]b]jLoft g+;tL 5\jo\u'Uj;fM Ujn . x]nDa'O lgjf{l;t hLjg xgfRj+Dx dxf/fgLoft o] Fo\xn . kz'kltof Gxj+3f6 -cfo{3f6_o\/fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jL /0faxfb'/ zfxof ;LDxln;] ;tL jg . x]nDa' +UjMGx'lasfM o] Fo\Yog w}u'vFo\yLyL tYot lkxf+jofRj+u'b'. ;'Gb/fgGb+x]nDa' + &Gx' +o] Fo\Yog wsfM RjoftMu'b'  -jh|frfo{Ù !)*@M !($,!(%_ . /]UdL+*Gx' lnkf o] Fo\Yo+u'woftMu'b' 
(1095: 170)
 
. 5u" l6kf]6o\(Gx'lnkf o] Fo\Yo+u'vF  RjoftMu'b'-jh|frfo{Ù !)*@M @(!_ . y'u'lbgoft cKjM:of+kfo\l5 gfnftMu'b'. t/ ;tL j+u'of ltlyldlt af/]  ]ljjfb vg]db'  . skbf{/ ef]6'kfF8] +lj;+!*^# cflZjg z'Sn !#v'Gx'kz'kltO /0faxfb'/ zfxof ;flns :yfkgf ofgftMu'nL /fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jL ;tL j+u'ltlyldlt x]laoftMu'b'. jif] {jlGx/;}u{h]Gb|w/0fL;+Vofldt]dfwj]  df;]b]ju'/f}if8fggltyf}kIf]l;t];Tj/+. ;fWjL z+e';l/Q6]/0faxfb" /]0f eqf{;d+  ToSTjf b]xdufb\lu/LzkjL+>L/fh/fh]Zj/L .. -jh|frfo{j >]i7Ù !!))M $#)_-lj;+ !*^# j}zfv z'Sn ifi7L j[x:kltaf/ afudtLof l;yo\kltj|tf >L/fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jL klt /0faxfb'/ zfxln;]  ;tL jg, ofsg+lzjkbo\Yog ._/fh/fh]Zj/Lln;]d]lk+!$Dx ;';f/]lk+ g+;tL jg . Yjof+!%Gx'lnkf sfzLof lelqgL 5Dx g+;tL jg . y'sy+  /0faxfb'/ zfxof xTofsf08 lnkf ;tL j+lk+!^Dx j eLd;]g yfkf+ :ofMlk+&&Dx ofgfM d'Ss+(#Dx]:of Hofg jg -cfrfo{Ù !)*%M !@%–@^, g]kfnÙ !!!%M ^$_ .Yj ;tL ;xd/0f ;tL vM jf cg'd/0f ;tL vM w}u'vFo\ljjfb b'. ;LDx efMtof ;LDxln;]5\jofM b]xTofu ofo\u'oft ;xd/0f ;tL wfO;f efMt ug+tfkfSs jf k/b]zo\ l;tls j gfk+;tL jg]dvgLu' kl/l:ylt jOan]efMtof k|ltlglwTj ofOu'5' +lr+– nfsf+, n+jf hftM HjgfM ;tL jg]u'oft cg'd/0f ;tL wfO . ;'Gb/fgGb+/fh/fh]Zj/Loft cg'd/0f ;tL j+u'  wsfM RjoftMu'b'-jh|frfo{Ù !)*@M !($_ . yf} +sGxo\a]nfoto\Yog]w' +s" u'5u" kqo\g+/0faxfb'/ zfxof clGtd ;+:sf/ ofMan];tL j+lk+;' +db', /fh/fh]Zj/L j d]lk+ld:t lnkfltlg ;tL j+u'wsfM RjoftMu'b'-g]kfnÙ !!!%M ($_ . t/ Yj afv+Do]o\kz'kltO Yo+sfM db'Dx efMt /0faxfb'/ zfxof bz{g ofgfM :jrfM rfMx'nfM kfln EjMk'ofM ;tL j+u'vFGXoygfM
^_ g]kfnL -!)*#M &#_ j e08f/L+-!!)(M $))_ /0faxfb'/ zfxof xTof lj;+!*^# j}zfv z'lb ^ wsfM laoftMu'kfo\l5 dh" . Sjo\/fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jL ;tL j+u'of rrf{:joflb;F  . ljqmd ;+jt\k" l0f{dfGtsy+u0fgf ofOu'ln+Gxfkf+s[i0fkIf jO, cn]ltlg z'SnkIf jO . kGth' +GXoAjofbLu'l6kf]6o\/0faxfb'/ zfxof xTof h" u'lb+wsfM z;+!&@* -lj;+  !*^#_ j}zfv z'Sn ^ laoftMu'b'-!!)%M @%_ . t/ Yj ldlt /fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jL ;tL j+u'of vM, /0faxfb'/ zfxof xTof h" u'of dv'. l6kf]6 ofMDx]l;of NjfsMa'sM h" u'ln+yy]  h" u'vo\dfM .
 
;xd/0f ;tL j+u'wsfM :ki6 ofgftMu'b'-s;fMÙ !!)#M &(_ . Rjo\pNn]v h"u'/fh/fh]Zj/L]b]jL ;tL j+u' clen]vo\g+  /0faxfb'/ zfxln;];tL jg wsfM RjoftMu'ln+;xd/0f ;tL j+u'vFoft x]k'li6 ofMu'b'. /fh/fh]Zj/L u'u'yf;o\ ;tL j+u'vM w}u'vFo\g+ lgu" dt b'. afa'/fd cfrfo{ +/0faxfb'/ zfxof nfz hs kz'klt cfo{3f6o\5\jo\s" u't/ /fh/fh]Zj/L ;fnL gbLO ;tL j+u'wsfM RjofbLu'b'-!)*%M !@%–@^_ . ;'Gb/fgGb+;tL j+u'yfo\  cfo{3f6 x]wsfM RjoftMu'b'-jh|frfo{Ù !)*@M !($_ . Rjo\pNn]v h" u'/fh/fh]Zj/L ;tL j+u'clen]vo\jfudtL l;yo\  ;tL j+u'wsfM kz'kltO Rj+u'cfo{3f6oft x]woftMu'vM . afv+Do]o\GXoygftMu'vFclen]vkfv] +g+ k'li6 h" u'b'. ;tL jg]GXoM ;tL jgLlk+ld;fto\;+yMu';DklQ BMlk+t 5fofjg]u'k/Dk/f b'. lj;+!*^!; hx/l;+vqLof snfM O{Zj/L+yMu'9fn, t/jf/, wg' cflb xftxltof/lg;] +sofM ynan, tfMˆjM j o+-rvf{_ts+kz'kltgfyoft 5fofM ;tL j+u'vM - jh|frfo{j >]i7Ù !!))M #*&_ . /fh/fh]Zj/L+g+x]nDa' +o] Fo\lnxf+jo\u'‰jno\nFo\nfMu'k|d'v b]j:yno\yLyL j:t't 5fofjMu'  vM . psL dWo]o\hojfu]Zj/L BMoft n' Fof e'O tofM tfof]5fMu'j0f{g y'u'afv+Do]o\ofgftMu'b'. afv+Do]o\j0f{g ofgftMy] +x]  hojfuLZj/Lof lt;fof wnvo\/fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jL+5fMu'lt;fof pNn]v h'ofRj+u'b'->]i7Ù !!@&M !%_ . Do]o\GXoygftMu'vF  clen]vkfv] +g+ k|dfl0ft h"u'Yj afv+Do]of tMw+u'ljz]iftf vM .
uLjf{0fo'4 ljqmd zfx j d}h'nflgys'+ 
afv+Do]o\/fh/fh]Zj/Lof sfo\sy+uLjf{0fo'4oft GXoAjoftMu'b'. t/ uLjf{0fo' 4 /fh/fh]Zj/Lof sfo\dv'. /0faxfb'/ zfxof a|Dx'gL snfM sflGtjtLkfv] +uLjf{0fo' 4of hGd h" u'vM . vnf /0faxfb'/ zfxof tMlwsMDx sfo\/0ff]Bf]t zfx vM . t/ j bf;Lk'q h" u'ln+ 
(Hamilton; 1091: 251)
 
joft h'h'doft . sflGtjtLoft Olxkf ofo\t jofkfv] +b'Dx sfo\oft x]h' 'h'  ofo\wsfM /0faxfb'/ zfx+jrg Ao" u'ln+uLjf{0fo'4 h'h'h'Ov+u'vM . /0faxfb'/ zfx+uLjf{0fo' 4of kn];f bndb{g zfxof sfo\  h'h'h'Og wsfM UofgfM s+:jf+ 
(cactus)
of lt ldvfo\tofM joft sf+ofgfAo"u'vM
(Oldfield; 1094: 284)
. lj;+!*%%kmfu'g z'lb @v'Gx'/0faxfb'/ zfx+uLjf{0fo'4oft /fhu2L nMNxfMan]of tfd|kqo\…>L sfG5f /fgLlt/sf k'qÚ woftMu'b'-g]kfnLÙ !)*#M !@#_ . uLjf{0fo' 4 yMDx]:of+x]RjMu'…;Tsd{/TgfjnLÚ ;k' mtL yMt sflGtjtL j /0faxfb'/ zfxof sfo\woftMu'b'-of]uL g/xl/gfyÙ !)&%M ^^–^&_ . sflGtjtLof d[To'lnkf uLjf{0fo' 4oft /fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jL+yM sfo\y] +ofgfM nlxgftMu' vM . pls+  afv+Do]of /rgfsf/+uLjf{0fo' 4oft /fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jLof sfo\wsfM pNn]v ofgftMu'vM . oSj Oltxf;sf/to\;+/fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jLof ;' +x];Gtfg db'wsfM RjoftMu' b'-g]kfnLÙ !)*#M @$, e08f/LÙ !!)(M #**, zdf{Ù !)(^M @$&,
Oldfield; 1094: 284, Hamilton; 1091: 251
_ . t/ jf:tljstf cy]dv'. /fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jLof sfo\drf hs db', t/ DXofo\5Dx b'. afv+Do]o\pDx DXofo\of gf+d}h'nflgys' +wsfM laoftMu'b'. t/ Yj gfdo\g]jfMkxM vg]b'u'ln+jof wfTy] +of gf+ vOdv'. afv+Do]of /rgfsf/+x]Yj gf+5'gfAo" u'vo\dfM . /0faxfb'/ zfxof lgDx DXofo\of gf+  k|sfzo\jMu'b'. psL dWo]o\Gxfkf+u'gf+ 
t]hnIdL
vM . jof Olxkf /fdgu/of hdLGbf/ /fhf t]hk|tfk ;]ggfk h" u'vM
(Regmi; 1101: 146)
 
. /0faxfb'/ zfxof d]Dx DXofo\sy+ 
ljnf;jtL
of gf+jofRj+u'b'. /0faxfb'/ zfxof DXofo\j uLjf{0fo'4 ljqmd zfxof ttf ljnf;jtL+ lj;+!*&! df3 z'lb !!v'Gx'kz'kltgfyoft jxMof tf]/0f ;d]tof Wjfvf bo\sfM b]5fMu'wsfM clen]v toftMu'b'-jh|frfo{j >]i7Ù !!))M %*@_ . t/ y'lk+lgDx dWo]o\u'Dx /fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jLof DXofo\vM wsfM ;Ls]dk' mlg .
eLd;]g yfkf
dxf/fgL /fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jLoft x]nDa' +o] Fo\xofM ;tL 5\jo\t afWo ofMDx eLd;]g yfkf vM . yM k|ltåGbLto\t rLsfM ;Qfo\sAhf ofo\t dxf/fgLoft ;tL 5\jofM GXofan] +of nflu nFo\Rj+u'k+uM rLsf5\jMu'vM . /0faxfb'/ zfxof d]lk+/fgLlk+t ;tL d5\jM;]/fh/fh]Zj/Lb]jLoft hs ;tL 5\jMu'ln+Yj vF:ki6 h" . l;FkFo\yxf+jg]w' +sfM dxf/fgL+ 
sfhL wfo eLd;]g yfkfdGqL wfo eLd;]g yfkf csfng 5tf l;odfn /]
wfo\sftMu'ln+eLd;]g yfkfof sf/0f+x] ;tL jg]dfMu'oRr's ;Lb'. cg]s hfnem]n ofgfM ;j{zlQmdfg h" Dx eLd;]g yfkfof g+ljeT; ?k+ktg h'n . o'j/fh b]j]Gb|oft ljif gs"u' cleof]uo\ h]no\ nfMan]yMyDx+uMlsofM cfTdxTof ofo\dfn . jof nfzoft bfx;+:sf/ ts+dofM;]v'l; l;yo\lu4 j Wj+to\t gs]t jf+5\joflan
(Oldfield; 1094: 316)
 
.Yj afv+Do]o\Rjldof gf+GXoygftMu'db'. Yj Do]of c1ft Rjld clts+k|ltefzfnLDx JolQmTj wsfM Rjd5fM;] +  dufM . ;flxlTos ?k+RjGXofMu'hs dv', P]ltxfl;s ?k+g+k|fdfl0fs h'Os Do]lrg]k' mu'Rjldof tMw+u' ;kmntf vM . Do]  RjMu'ltlyldlt GXoygfdtM;f+g];+(@^ -lj;+!*^#_ w' +sfMltlg RjMu' vM wsfM SjMl5gfM wfo\k' m . Yj afv+Do]oft zfxsfnLg g]kfnefiff ;flxToof pTs[i6 gd" gfsy+sfo\k' m .
lnwF;f
cfrfo{, afa'/fd, !)*%,
g] kfnsf] ;+ lIfKt j[tfGt -v08 !_ 
. sf7df8f} +M k|df]b zDz]/ j gL/ljqmd …Kof;LÚ -lj;+@)@@_ . s;fM, k|  ]daxfb'/ -;+=_, !!)#,
afv+ –Do] 
. :j+u"u';+:s/0f . o] FM Rj;fkf;f . Gxfkf+lkb+u'g];+!)*# . l3ld/], dfwjk|;fb, !)(*,
/fh] Zj/L -kflkgL cfdf ;lxt_ 
. :j+u" u';+:s/0f . nlntk'/ M ;femf k|sfzg -lj;+@)#%_ . Gxfkf+  lkb+u'lj;+@)!& .

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