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Modified Biodiesel Production Manual

Modified Biodiesel Production Manual

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Published by Mohammed
Modified Biodiesel Production Manual.....
Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is gaining attention in the United States after reaching a considerable level of success in Europe.
Its primary advantages are that it is one of the most renewable fuels currently available and it is also non-toxic and biodegradable. It can
also be used directly in most diesel engines without requiring extensive engine modifications.
The purpose of this book is to describe and explain the processes and issues involved in producing this new fuel.
Modified Biodiesel Production Manual.....
Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is gaining attention in the United States after reaching a considerable level of success in Europe.
Its primary advantages are that it is one of the most renewable fuels currently available and it is also non-toxic and biodegradable. It can
also be used directly in most diesel engines without requiring extensive engine modifications.
The purpose of this book is to describe and explain the processes and issues involved in producing this new fuel.

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Published by: Mohammed on Sep 26, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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07/12/2013

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July 2004 NREL/SR-510-36244
 
Biodiesel ProductionTechnology
August 2002–January 2004
J. Van Gerpen, B.Shanks, and R. Pruszko
Iowa State University 
D. Clements
Renewable Products Development Laboratory 
G. Knothe
USDA/NCAUR 
 
NREL Technical Monitor: K. Shaine Tyson
Prepared under Subcontract No. ACO-2-35016-01
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393303-275-3000
www.nrel.gov
Operated for the U.S. Department of EnergyOffice of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energyby Midwest Research Institute
BattelleContract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337
 
 
Biodiesel Production Technology
 
Background
Biodiesel Production Processes
Biodiesel Plant Logistics
 
 1
1. Basics of Biodiesel Production
Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines that is gaining attention in the United Statesafter reaching a considerable level of success in Europe. Its primary advantages are that it is oneof the most renewable fuels currently available and it is also non-toxic and biodegradable. It canalso be used directly in most diesel engines without requiring extensive engine modifications.The purpose of this book is to describe and explain the processes and issues involved in producing this new fuel.The most cursory look at the literature relating to biodiesel will soon reveal the followingrelationship for prediction of biodiesel from fats and oils.
100 lbs of oil + 10 lbs of methanol
100 lbs of biodiesel + 10 lbs of glycerol
This equation is a simplified form of the following
transesterfication
reaction.O O|| ||CH
2
- O - C - R 
1
CH
3
- O - C - R 
1
|| O O CH
2
- OH| || || |CH - O - C - R 
2
+ 3 CH
3
OH
CH
3
- O - C - R 
2
+ CH - OH| (Catalyst) || O O CH
2
- OH| || ||CH
2
- O - C - R 
3
CH
3
- O - C - R 
3
triglyceride methanol mixture of fatty esters glycerol
 
Figure 1. Transesterification Reaction
where R 
1
, R 
2
, and R 
3
are long chains of carbons and hydrogen atoms, sometimes called fatty acidchains. There are five types of chains that are common in soybean oil and animal fats (others are present in small amounts):Palmitic: R = - (CH
2
)
14
– CH
3
16 carbons, (including the one thatR is attached to.) (16:0)Stearic: R = - (CH
2
)
16
– CH
3
18 carbons, 0 double bonds (18:0)Oleic: R = - (CH
2
)
7
CH=CH(CH
2
)
7
CH
3
18 carbons, 1 double bond (18:1)

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