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APA Social Media - Why Broadcasting is Obsolete

APA Social Media - Why Broadcasting is Obsolete

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Published by: Kris Haamer on Sep 26, 2009
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03/28/2012

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Social
 
Media
 
1
 
Running
 
head:
 
SOCIAL
 
MEDIA:
 
WHY
 
BROADCASTING
 
IS
 
OBSOLETE
 
Social
 
Media:
 
Why
 
Broadcasting
 
Is
 
Obsolete
 
Kris
 
Haamer
 
Baltic
 
Film
 
and
 
Media
 
School
 
English
 
Composition
 
II
 
Professor
 
Thurlow
 
June
 
14,
 
2008
 
 
Social
 
Media
 
2
 
Social
 
Media:
 
Why
 
Broadcasting
 
Is
 
Obsolete
 
Broadcast
 
media
 
have
 
in
 
recent
 
years
 
increasingly
 
been
 
criticized
 
for
 
a
 
perceived
 
decrease
 
in
 
the
 
quality
 
of 
 
information
 
they
 
provide,
 
broadcast
 
tabloidization,
 
irrelevance,
 
and
 
more
 
generally
 
for
 
the
 
concentration
 
of 
 
ownership
 
(Bromley,
 
2001,
 
p.
 
2).
 
However
 
there
 
are
 
more
 
optimistic
 
alternative
 
models
 
(Goh
 
&
 
Foo,
 
2007,
 
p.
 
137)
 
with
 
implications
 
towards
 
better
 
quality
 
information
 
and
 
an
 
increasingly
 
meaningful
 
discourse
 
accessible
 
to
 
more
 
and
 
more
 
people.
 
These
 
views
 
could
 
be
 
broadly
 
described
 
as
 
being
 
in
 
the
 
realm
 
of 
 
social 
 
media
,
 
and
 
generally
 
advocate
 
using
 
technical
 
innovations
 
such
 
as
 
the
 
Internet
 
to
 
engage
 
people
 
in
 
a
 
more
 
transparent
 
conversation.
 
As
 
a
 
superior
 
model
 
of 
 
communication,
 
social
 
media
 
will
 
increase
 
mediation
 
quality
 
and
 
lead
 
to
 
benefits
 
in
 
several
 
areas
 
over
 
the
 
traditional
 
broadcasting
 
model.
 
Failures
 
of 
 
the
 
Broadcast
 
Media
 
Concerns
 
about
 
the
 
media,
 
and
 
media
 
criticism
 
is
 
not
 
new
 
in
 
the
 
literature.
 
As
 
early
 
as
 
1920,
 
Lippmann,
 
writing
 
about
 
the
 
powers
 
and
 
failures
 
of 
 
the
 
press
 
in
 
his
 
book
 
Liberty 
 
and 
 
the
 
News
,
 
delivered
 
the
 
notion
 
that
 
“the
 
news
 
columns
 
are
 
common
 
carriers.
 
When
 
those
 
who
 
control
 
them
 
[...]
 
determine
 
by
 
their
 
own
 
consciences
 
what
 
shall
 
be
 
reported
 
and
 
for
 
what
 
purpose,
 
democracy
 
is
 
unworkable.
 
Public
 
opinion
 
is
 
blockaded”
 
(pp.
 
5
6).
 
More
 
recently,
 
Baudrillard,
 
one
 
of 
 
the
 
most
 
fervent
 
media
 
critics
 
of 
 
the
 
century,
 
with
 
more
 
eloquence
 
described
 
the
 
prevalent
 
media
 
model
 
as
 
"speech
 
without
 
response"
 
(1981,
 
p.
 
172).
 
Contemporary
 
media
 
cannot
 
be
 
viewed
 
separately
 
from
 
technology;
 
to
 
a
 
great
 
degree
 
it
 
is
 
and
 
has
 
been
 
dependent
 
on
 
technological
 
advances.
 
Because
 
broadcasting
 
media
 
models
 
by
 
the
 
nature
 
of 
 
their
 
technology
 
are
 
dependent
 
on
 
some
 
form
 
of 
 
one
to
many
 
or
 
few
to
many
 
communication,
 
Baudrillard
 
is
 
right
 
to
 
criticize
 
the
 
media
 
on
 
the
 
grounds
 
that
 
“they
 
fabricate
 
noncommunication”
 
(p.
 
210)
 
as
 
this
 
is
 
indeed
 
a
 
technical
 
given.
 
However,
 
when
 
working
 
with
 
MacLean,
 
in
 
his
 
later
 
works
 
in
 
1985,
 
Baudrillard
 
further
 
expanded
 
his
 
critique
 
on
 
the
 
lack
 
of 
 
conversation
 
in
 
which
 
he
 
perhaps
 
better
 
described
 
the
 
downfalls
 
of 
 
the
 
contemporary
 
media
 
by
 
stating
 
that
 
the
 
“present
 
architecture
 
of 
 
the
 
media
 
is
 
founded
 
on
 
this
 
[…]
 
definition:
 
they
 
are
 
what
 
 
Social
 
Media
 
3
 
finally
 
forbids
 
response,
 
what
 
renders
 
impossible
 
any
 
process
 
of 
 
exchange”
 
(1985,
 
p.
 
577).
 
This
 
lack
 
of 
 
possibility
 
for
 
conversation
 
is
 
why
 
the
 
broadcast
 
model
 
is
 
obsolete.
 
Social
 
media
 
models
 
on
 
the
 
other
 
hand
 
are
 
less
 
determined
 
and
 
allow
 
for
 
more
 
flexibility.
 
In
 
2008,
 
for
 
the
 
most
 
part
 
they
 
include
 
highly
 
technological
 
implementations
 
of 
 
mediation
 
on
 
the
 
Internet
 
platform
 
with
 
considerable
 
participatory
 
aspects.
 
These
 
are
 
sites
 
on
 
the
 
Internet
 
where
 
essentially
 
every
 
person
 
becomes
 
the
 
media.
 
The
 
discussion
 
over
 
broadcast
 
media
 
seems
 
to
 
follow
 
from
 
the
 
types
 
of 
 
questions
 
Baudrillard
 
poses
 
“what
 
else
 
do
 
the
 
media
 
dream
 
of 
 
besides
 
creating
 
the
 
event
 
simply
 
by
 
their
 
presence?”
 
(1994,
 
p.
 
38),
 
in
 
which
 
the
 
media
 
are
 
seen
 
as
 
something
 
large
 
and
 
unusual
 
that
 
by
 
the
 
sole
 
virtue
 
of 
 
its
 
presents
 
creates
 
illusions
 
that
 
fool
 
the
 
public.
 
The
 
discussion
 
in
 
the
 
realm
 
of 
 
social
 
media
 
however,
 
is
 
more
 
progressive.
 
In
 
essence,
 
where
 
everyone
 
becomes
 
the
 
media,
 
being
 
mediated
 
is
 
very
 
commonplace
 
for
 
each
 
person,
 
and
 
the
 
effects
 
of 
 
being
 
mediated
 
could
 
be
 
anticipated
 
to
 
be
 
less
 
pronounced.
 
While
 
according
 
to
 
some
 
authors,
 
for
 
example
 
Rheingold,
 
the
 
contemporary
 
institutions
 
of 
 
the
 
“mass
 
media
 
[...]
 
have
 
“commoditized”
 
the
 
public
 
sphere,
 
substituting
 
slick
 
public
 
relations
 
for
 
genuine
 
debate”
 
(2000,
 
p.
 
29),
 
social
 
media
 
implementations
 
can
 
be
 
expected
 
to
 
have
 
intrinsically
 
a
 
greater
 
degree
 
of 
 
transparency.
 
Because
 
they
 
are
 
created
 
by
 
the
 
people
 
their
 
existence
 
depends
 
on
 
people
 
actively
 
participating.
 
Effectively,
 
the
 
social
 
media
 
version
 
of 
 
the
 
public
 
sphere
 
is
 
controlled
 
by
 
the
 
people
 
to
 
a
 
much
 
greater
 
degree,
 
than
 
the
 
broadcasting
 
version
 
of 
 
the
 
sphere.
 
Therefore
 
the
 
scope
 
for
 
access
 
anywhere
 
and
 
for
 
anyone
 
for
 
any
 
need
 
across
 
devices
 
and
 
platforms,
 
and
 
even
 
independent
 
of 
 
location,
 
is
 
that
 
much
 
greater
 
for
 
social
 
media
 
than
 
for
 
broadcasting
 
media.
 
The
 
virtue
 
of 
 
giving
 
more
 
power
 
to
 
the
 
people
 
is
 
why
 
from
 
a
 
political
 
perspective
 
social
 
media
 
is
 
more
 
democratic.
 
Following
 
from
 
the
 
premise
 
that
 
media
 
set
 
the
 
political
 
agenda,
 
more
 
accurate
 
information,
 
transparency
 
and
 
participation
 
in
 
this
 
process
 
of 
 
every
 
conversation
 
benefits
 
everyone.
 
Moreover,
 
from
 
a
 
psychological
 
viewpoint,
 
research
 
suggests
 
that
 
it
 
is
 
more
 
natural
 
for
 
people
 
to
 
discuss
 
information
 
socially
 
on
 
the
 
Internet,
 
rather
 
than
 
to
 
passively
 
consume
 
media
 
created
 
by
 
broadcasters;
 
according
 
to
 
a
 
recent
 
Morgan
 
Stanley
 
report
 
more
 
than
 
half 
 
of 
 
the
 
top
 
10
 

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