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biology folio form 4

biology folio form 4

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Published by: adfizat on Sep 26, 2009
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06/24/2013

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1.
Food processing is the use of suitable methods and techniques to transform rawedible substances into food for human consumption2.The purpose of food processing are to :a)Prevent microorganisms (e.g. bacteria and mold) from putrefying or fermentingfood b)Prevent oxidation from spoiling foodc)Extend the shelf life of food
d)
Make food looked better and tastier e)Remove toxinsf)Prevent excess food from spoiling and going to waste
g)
Produce different varieties from a single food substance , for instance milk is processed into cheese, milk powder, butter and yogurth)Enable easy food distribution to consumersi)Increase food consistency for marketing1.A short history of food processinga)When prehistoric humans first discovered fire, they processed food by cookingit (burning, baking over hot stones and boiling) and later smoking it. b)Then they leave meat, fruits and vegetable in the sun and wind to remove their moisturec)Much later, people discovered the salting of fish, meat and vegetables
d)
Today, we use some of these main methods to process our food like canning,drying, dehydration, freezing (first commercial use in 1842), freeze-drying, pasteurization, fermentation or pickling and irradiation
a)Pasteurization
 
1
Pasteurization is a process which slows microbial growth in food. The process wasnamed after its creator, French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur. The first pasteurization test was completed by Louis Pasteur and Claude Bernard on April,1862. The process was originally conceived as a way of preventing wine and beer from souring.
2
Unlike sterilization, inventor Nicolas Appert, pasteurization is not intended to killall pathogenic micro-organisms in the food or liquid. Instead, pasteurization aims toreduce the number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease(assuming the pasteurization product is refrigerated and consumed before itsexpiration date). Commercial-scale sterilization of food is not common because itadversely affects the taste and quality of the product. Certain food products are processed to achieve the state of commercial sterility.
3
Pasteurization typically uses temperatures below boiling since at temperaturesabove the boiling point for milk, casein, micelles will irreversibly aggregate (or "curdle"). There are two main types of pasteurization used today: Hightemperature /short time HTST and Extended Shelf Life (ESL) treatment. Ultra HighTemperature (UHT or ultra-heat treated) is also used for milk treatmentPasteurization methods are usually standardized and controlled by national foodsafety agencies. These agencies require milk to be HTST pasteurized in order toqualify for the "pasteurization" label. There are different standards for differentdairy products, depending on the fat content and the intended usage. For example,the pasteurization standards for cream differ from the standards for fluid milk, andthe standards for pasteurizing cheese are designed to preserve the phosphatesenzyme, which aids in cutting..
Pasteurization process
1.Products that can be pasteurized:a)Cheese b)Watec)Mild)Beee)Eggsf)Almondsg)Juice
a)Fermentation
 
1.Fermentation in food processing typically refers to the conversion of sugar toalcohol using yeast, bacteria or a combination thereof, under anaerobicconditions.
2.
More general definition of fermentation is the chemical conversion of carbohydrates into alcohols or acids. When fermentation stops prior to completeconversion of sugar to alcohol, a stuck fermentation is said to have occurred.3.The science of fermentation is known as zymology. Fermentation usually impliesthat the action of the microorganisms is desirable and the process is used to produce alcoholic beverages such as wine, beer, and cider.4.Fermentation is also employed in preservation to create lactic acid in sour foodssuch as pickled cucumbers, kimchi and yogurts. 
Beer fermenting at brewery

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