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Shaastra Online Math Modeling

# Shaastra Online Math Modeling

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01/28/2014

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Shaastra Online Math Modeling
–
Problem Set 1 1)The most likely way that 4 suits are distributed in a bridge hand is 4-4-3-2. The probability of occurence of this distribution is 0.2155 2) The final digit obtained is 1. Since
    

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
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  
Since 8
2014

1 (mod 9), the sum of the digits of this number will also leave a remainder of 1 when divided by 9. Subsequently, each time we take the sum of the digits of the new result divided by 9, the new result will also leave a remainder of 1. Therefore until we get the single digit the digit will be 1. 3) 4) a) Proof of the least square method: X is a column vector containing k + 1 coefficients for the least square polynomial model.
[
]
A is a n
×
(k+1) matrix which contains the variables of the polynomial fit.
The least square method requires that the following function to be minimized:
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Taking partial derivative of S with respect to
:
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


Thus,
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(
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)

(
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For S to be minimized, the partial derivative has to be equal to zero. Therefore
(

)

(

= 0 This equation can be rewritten in matrix notation: A
T
AX = A
T
B Therefore, X = (A
T
A)
-1
A
T
B  b) Using R, we can fit the data provided into a linear model: Figure 1: Plot of population against year using a linear model R source code for this fit:
year <- c(1815, 1825, 1835, 1845, 1855, 1865, 1875, 1885) > population <- c(8.3, 11, 14.7, 19.7, 26.7, 35.2, 44.4, 55.9) > plot(year, population, ylab = "Population", xlab = "Year") > res = lm(population~year) > res Call: lm(formula = population ~ year) Coefficients: (Intercept) year -1225.507 0.677

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