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Http://Www.irfca.org/Faq/Faq Elec.html

Http://Www.irfca.org/Faq/Faq Elec.html

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Electric Traction - I
ContentsThis page
Electric traction voltages
Q. What are the voltages used for electric traction in India?
Voltages used are 1.5kV DC and 25kV AC for mainline trains.Calcutta had an overhead 3kV DC system until the '60s.The 1.5kV DC overhead system (negative earth, positive catenary) is used aroundBombay (This includes Mumbai CST - Kalyan, Kalyan - Pune, Kalyan - Igatpuri,Mumbai CST - Belapur - Panvel, and Churchgate - Virar). There are plans [2/04] tochange this to 25kV AC by 2010. In preparation for this, BHEL has been retrofittingsome EMUs with AC drives to allow them to operate with both DC and AC traction asthe system conversion proceeds (see the section onEMUs). Conversion to 25kV AC hasalready been done on the Titwala-Kasara section; next to be converted are Khapoli-Vangani, Vangani-Thane, and Titwala-Thane. The Madras suburban routes (Madras-Tambaram in the '60s, extended later to Villupuram) used to be 1.5kV DC until about1967, when it was converted to 25kV AC (all overhead catenary supply). (This is wherethe MG DC locos were used, e.g., the YCG-1 series.)The 25kV AC system with overhead supply from a catenary is used throughout the rest of the country. The WCAM series of locomotives are designed to operate with both DC andAC traction as they move towards or away from the Bombay DC section. The new [2003]AC-DC EMU rakes used in Mumbai are also designed to operate with both DC and ACtraction as the Bombay area switches over to the 25kV AC system.Read more aboutMumbai area electrification.
The Calcutta Metro uses 750V DC traction with a third-rail mechanism for delivering theelectricity to the EMUs.The Calcutta trams use 550V DC with an overhead catenary system with undergroundreturn conductors. The catenary is at a negative potential.The Delhi Metro uses 25kV AC overhead traction with a catenary system on the ground-level and elevated routes, and uses a rather unusual 'rigid catenary' or overhead power railin the underground tunnel sections (Line 2).
History of electrification
Q. What's the history of electric traction in India?
The first electric train ran between Bombay's Victoria Terminus and Kurla along theHarbour Line of CR, on February 3, 1925, a distance of 9.5 miles. In 1926, Thana andMahim were connected. In 1927, electrification was complete up to Kalyan. In 1928,Borivili in the north was connected (Colaba-Borivili of WR being inaugurated on May 1).In 1929, Kalyan - Igatpuri section was commissioned. In 1930, the Kalyan - Poona trackswere opened to electric trains.
Was Mumbai's the first electric service in Asia?
 It is sometimes stated that the electric train in 1925 was Asia's first electric, or electricsuburban, train service. This is however not true, because electric services were runningin Japan since Jan. 31, 1895, on the Kyoto Electric Railway (officially listed under 'Exploitation Department', Kyoto Municipality, in the annual reports of the Governmentof Japan's Department of Railways), but this is sometimes classified as a tramway insteadof a light rail system. (Interestingly, this was also the year that the first Japanese steamlocomotive was manufactured.) Electric railcar services ran on the Government Railwaysof Japan from about 1905, and (German-built) electric locomotives were introduced inJapan in 1911. In 1919 the first the first entirely Japanese electric locomotive was built (aclass ED-40). In Indonesia, the first electrified section (1500V DC) of the State Railwaysopened at Batavia (Jakarta) in 1925, the same year as in Bombay.On November 15, 1931, electrification of the meter gauge track between Madras Beachand Tambaram was inaugurated (1.5kV DC). After that the only electrification projectundertaken was Borivili - Virar, finished in 1936. For mainline traffic, GIPR undertook electrification of the Karjat-Pune and Kasara-Igatpuri sections because it was realizedthat the heavy traffic to and from Bombay would be suitable for electric haulage.Following this there was a long gap, and the next electrification project started only 1953or 1954, in the Calcutta area (Howrah-Burdwan via Bandel, Sheoraphulli-Tarakeshwar),using 3kV DC traction. At this time, the idea of mainline electrification (Howrah-Mughalsarai) was seriously mooted. Support for 25kV AC traction was also growing atabout this time, especially after some trials of AC locos from SNCF, and studies that
concluded that the single-phase load from electric traction would not seriously unbalancethe 3-phase regional grids.So the Calcutta area electrification was done keeping in mind the eventual migration to25kV AC system, in terms of the technical requirements (insulator specifications, etc.).The first 25kV AC electrified section was Burdwan-Mughalsarai, completed in 1957,followed by the Tatanagar-Rourkela section on the Howrah-Bombay route. The firstactual train run (apart from trial runs) using 25kV AC was on December 15, 1959, on theKendposi-Rajkharswan section (SER). Howrah-Gaya was electrified by about 1960.Electrification till Kanpur on the Howrah-Delhi route was done by about 1972, and theentire Howrah-Delhi route was electrified on August 5, 1976. The Bombay-Delhi routewas electrified by February 1, 1988.Through the 1960s and early 1970s numerous studies were commissioned to investigatethe question of which of diesel or electric traction was really more economical and better in the long run for IR. Most of these leaned towards electrification, especially for high-traffic sections. The rise in oil prices in the mid-1970s tilted the argument further infavour of electric traction as electricity generation in most of India is hydroelectric or coal-based.India took the plunge from DC to AC electric traction in the mid-1950s, as mentionedabove. Since French developments led the field, the AC locomotives supplied at first(from SNCF) followed that country's practice, whether built in India or France. Thesewere the eight-wheeled WAM-1 locomotives that are still in operation in some places.The first train to be hauled by an electric locomotive from Delhi Jn. was the Assam Mail.Bombay-Delhi (WR) route was fully electrified by Dec. 1987. The CR route was fullyelectrified by June 1990, when the Bhusaval - Itarsi section was electrified.The 2 * 25kV AC system (see below) began to be put in place in the 1990s; the firstregular service using this system was between Bina and Katni (CR) on January 16, 1995.This was later extended to Bishrampur.[12/04] With the BG conversion between Tambaram and Madras Beach complete, theonly electrified MG line on IR is the Tambaram - Villupuram stretch. However, no trainuses electric traction (the YAM 1 locomotives used to service this section have beendismantled). Madras Beach - Tambaram was originally on 1.5kV DC electrification butwas converted around 1968 to the 25kV AC system.After a period of about 25 years of aggressive electrification, now [12/04] IR has most of the busy routes of its network electrified (although not all), and this has resulted in about65% of the traffic being hauled by electric traction. Recently [12/04], therefore, IR hasdecided to slow down the pace of electrification -- about 2600km of routes are scheduledto be electrified in the next 10 years, compared to 5100km in the past 10 years. The focuswill be on consolidating electric traction for the busiest sections; some of the sections that

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