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Composite Materials Improvement Radioactive Waste Containers Structures Characterization fLT8

Composite Materials Improvement Radioactive Waste Containers Structures Characterization fLT8

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Composite Materials Improvement Radioactive Waste Containers Structures
Composite Materials Improvement Radioactive Waste Containers Structures

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a SciTechnol journal
Review Article
H.M. Saleh, J Nucl Ene Sci Power Generat Technol 2013, S1http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2325-9809.S1-006
International Publisher of Science, Technology and Medicine
 All articles published in Journal of Nuclear Energy Science & Power Generation Technology are the property of SciTechnol, and is protected by copyright laws. Copyright © 2013, SciTechnol, All Rights Reserved.
Journal of Nuclear Energy Science & Power Generation Technology
Composite Materials for the Improvement of Radioactive Waste Containers: Structures and Characterization
H.M. Saleh
1
*
Abstract
The packaging process is to reduce or even to retard the release of the radio contaminants to the surrounding environment. Improving of containers used for radioactive wastes packaging was studied extensively. Polymers, cement concrete, stainless steel for example were used for preparing the containers that used for transportation or disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion the use of container as external barrier could be recommended
as possible additives to improve the connement efciency of the disposed
radioactive wastes.
Keywords
Radioactive wastes; Radioactive waste disposal; Radiocontaminants; Packaging process; Radiation resistance; Containers
Introduction
According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), radioactive waste can be defined as “material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than clearance levels established by the appropriate authority and or which no use is oreseen” [1].Te generated radioactive wastes are varied in orm, activity and type o contamination as they are in type o generating activity. It may be solid, liquid or gaseous. Within these groups are a variety o waste types such as trash, spent radioactive sources, pumps, pipes, ion exchange resins, sludges, and spent nuclear uel. Activity levels range rom extremely high levels associated with spent uel and residues rom uel reprocessing to very low levels associated with waste rom radioisotope applications in laboratories, hospitals, etc. Equally broad is the spectrum o hal-lives o the radionuclides contained in the radioactive waste. Which radionuclides are present will depend on the generating process; they may include uranium and other naturally occurring, transuranic and/or specific man-made radionuclides [2].Radioactive waste containers provide protective barriers against physical and chemical stresses during transportation, interim storage and final disposal o the radioactive dangerous wastes [3]. Te containers are varies rom steel drums to concrete boxes [4]. Tey are classified into different subcategories depending on the activity content
*Corresponding author:
 Hosam El-Din Mostafa Saleh, Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza, Egypt, Tel: +201005191018; Fax: +202 37493042; E-mail: hosamsaleh70@yahoo.com
Received:
 
September 05, 2013
 
Accepted:
 
October 21, 2013
 
Published:
 November 01, 2013
and hal-lie o nuclides contained in the waste. Te key perormance parameter o any container is the resistance to environmental attack (chemical perormance) [3].Te main goal o this process was to avoid leaching and migration o the radionuclides to surroundings. Te presented containers were subjected to chemical and physical investigations as well as to some mechanical evaluations in order to ensure the improvement figured rom the improved containers.
Radioactive Waste Classification According to Disposal
Different trends have been used or classification o radioactive wastes; one o these is based on the disposal concept. Tis method o classification has been derived mainly rom the saety aspects o radioactive waste disposal, but can be developed into the other stages o radioactive waste management. It is reasonable to start classification rom the point o disposal to keep consistency among the different stages o radioactive waste management.Te International Atomic Energy Agency has proposed a quantitative classification or radioactive wastes relevant to disposal concept. Five categories are proposed taking in account a group o the properties, such as hal-lie and heat generation capacity [5]. Boundary levels between classes are presented as orders o magnitude and typical characteristics o waste classes and summarized in able 1. A more detailed classification o radioactive waste which provides a urther subdivision o wastes within waste classes will depend on individual national programmes or requirements. Also addressed are suggestions or application o the modified classification system to actual disposal acilities [2]. Application o a classification system or the management o radioactive waste implies an adequate separation o wastes generated. A decision chart or the segregation o radioactive and exempt waste is presented in Figure 1.
Strategies of Radioactive Waste Management
Radioactive waste management is used in two senses. In the first place, it means the process or disposing o waste in a way that saeguards the environment and the health o the public. In this sense, radioactive waste management is a tool o public health control and or applying the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) policy on public exposure to the area o waste disposal. Secondly, it can mean the whole sequence o operations starting with the generation o waste, passing through storage, and ending with disposal. In this sense, it is analogous to any set o operations, such as uel abrication or the practice o nuclear medicine and the ICRP recommendations apply to it as to any practice [6].
Segregation and Packaging of Radioactive Waste
wo types o segregation are in place: a physical segregation o the types o waste and isotope hal-lie segregation within some physical types. Te physical types segregated include: dry solids, aqueous liquids, animal carcasses, scintillation vials, and mixed wastes. Tere are three categories or segregating dry waste and aqueous liquid waste based on the hal-lie o the radioactive material.
 
Citation:
 H.M. Saleh(2013) Composite Materials for the Improvement of Radioactive Waste Containers: Structures and Characterization. J Nucl Ene Sci Power Generat Technol S1-006.
Page 2 of 12
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2325-9809.S1-006 
Global Radiation Safety Concern and Management of Radioactive Waste
Afer segregation the packed wastes were transported to the subsequent treatment and/or disposal processes, radioactive waste must not be packed in non-radioactive waste containers. Likewise, non-contaminated items should not be packed in radioactive waste containers (Figure 2) [2].
Conditioning and Immobilization Processes
For the sae storage o ILW, the primary consideration is to ensure that the radioactive waste is immobile and is contained into solid inert matrix in order to minimize the potential risks during dispersal. Te waste should, thereore, be in a orm that is physically and chemically stable and should also be resistant to any significant deterioration over the storage period. Te waste should be characterized to provide inormation or any uture handling. Certain raw radioactive wastes may be in a orm or which the radioactivity is already immobile and, consequently, meet the requirements or passive saety without the need or processing. In many cases, the raw radioactive material or radioactive waste will require conditioning to place it into a passively sae orm to immobilize the radioactivity. For example, highly reactive or corrosive substances should be neutralized or made less reactive by chemical processes. In the ew cases where a raw radioactive waste is not suitable or processing, then these wastes should be identified and an acceptable alternative strategy or their uture management developed. ypical waste orms that all into this category are gases, liquids, wet solids, slurries, sludges, powders and particulate material. Te conditioning processes that are typically used or immobilization o liquids and solids are encapsulation in cement, polymer, bitumen, or vitrification in glass or ceramic [7].
Final Disposal of Radioactive Waste
In order to protect man and the environment, the isolation o radioactive wastes rom the biosphere by final disposal in deep geologic ormations or in near surace repository is planned. ‘Final disposal’ means the secure and maintenance-ree disposal o radioactive waste or an unlimited period o time without any intention o retrieving it.Whereas “waste storage” is the temporary retention o a waste, “waste disposal” is the discarding o the waste with no intention o retrieval. Tese two waste disposal strategies can be labeled Concentrate and Retain, and Dilute and Disperse. Ofen disposal involves a combination o these two methods [8].
Containers
Te waste container plays a key role in shielding ionizing radiation and containing contaminants, thus ensuring saety in various stages o a radioactive waste management system rom interim storage, through transport and to its final disposal. Hence, the waste container is designed to contain, physically protect, and/or radiologically shield or the waste orm during the
 
Sr. No.Waste ClassesTypical CharacteristicsDisposal Options1.Exempt Waste (EW)
 Activity levels at or below clearance levels, which are based on an annual dose to members of the public of less than 0.01 mSvNo radiological restrictions
2.Low And Intermediate Level Waste) LILW)
 Activity levels above clearance levels and thermal power below about 2kW/m
3
2.1.Short Lived Waste (LILW-SL)
Restricted long lived radionuclide concentrations )limitation of long lived alpha emitting radionuclides to 4000 Bq/g in individual waste packages and to an overall average of 400 Bq/g per waste package)Near surface or geological disposal facility
2.2.Long Lived Waste (LILW-LL)
Long lived radionuclide concentrations exceeding limitations for short lived wasteGeological disposal facility
3.High Level Waste (HLW)
Thermal power above about 2kW/m
3
 and long lived radionuclide concentra-tions exceeding limitations for short lived wasteGeological disposal facility
Table 1:
Typical characteristics of waste classes based on disposal concept.
Figure 1:
Decision chart for the segregation of radioactive and exempt waste.
 
Citation:
 H.M. Saleh(2013) Composite Materials for the Improvement of Radioactive Waste Containers: Structures and Characterization. J Nucl Ene Sci Power Generat Technol S1-006.
Page 3 of 12
doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2325-9809.S1-006 
Global Radiation Safety Concern and Management of Radioactive Waste
 various activities involved during the period rom conditioning until emplacement and closure o a disposal acility [9]. According to IAEA different types o containers were categorized depending on the volume and characteristics o waste and the materials o the container. Te inner volume ranges rom some liters to several cubic meters.Te materials employed are usually mild carbon steel, stainless steel and concrete with wall thickness rom about one to hundreds o millimeters. Te containers may have a protective casting and may include a radiation shield.
Requirements of the Container
Some o container requirements to ulfil its unction were summarized as ollows:i. Te container should have a suitable construction to enable filling and in certain cases mixing and to enable easy and proper sealing.ii. It must have a construction not requiring manual operation during packaging.iii. It should consist o a material compatible with the waste.iv. It should be strong enough to stand alse operations. v. It should have neither too heavy nor too bulky. vi. Be easily decontaminated on outside (smooth or coated surace). vii. Satisy the transport regulations or be suitable or extra transport shields. viii. Permit effective occupation o the area and the space at the storage acilities and in most cases in disposal acilities.ix. Have corrosion resistance to secure its unction during the storage time.x. Reduce the effects o possible ailures (all, transport collision, immersion and fire).xi. In certain cases be leak-tight, especially to rain showers.xii. Be strong enough to stand the pressure existing in the disposal.xiii. Have a proper combination o construction and material [10].Since some o the radionuclides in LLWs are short-lived, LLWs are classified into different subcategories (depending upon the activity contents and hal-lie o the nuclides in the waste), and different stabilization requirements are used or different subcategories accordingly. In the case o HLW, separate casks are used or transportation, and special emphasis is given to the disposal containers to ensure long-term isolation o the waste [11] (Figures 3  and 4).
Characterizations of the Waste Container [9]
Dimensions and mass
Te container dimensions and mass must be defined with associated compliance limits.Tey should be compatible with the requirements o existing or anticipated handling and storage arrangements, transport systems, and disposal acilities. It is recommended that all constraints or unctions o the container, including emplacement and potential retrievability provisions, through its different phases o lie should be examined beore choosing the material and the geometry o a container suitable or geological disposal.
Qualification tests
o ensure that the waste package meets the design requirements, qualification tests should be perormed. Tese tests include examining the material o abrication and the container or its parts during manuacture. Extensive testing would be undertaken during the design phase with more limited testing during routine waste processing. Factors specific or geological repositories that should be considered include the geochemical environment, the groundwater characteristics, the hydrostatic and lithostatic loads, and the thermomechanical properties o the host rock.
Radionuclide containment
It is essential that the waste package contain the radioactivity during the handling, storage and transport phases. In accordance with the multibarrier concept, the container is likely to be a barrier preventing the release o radionuclides rom the repository to the
Figure 2:
Some kinds of standard radioactive waste packages.

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