a SciTechnol journal
H.M. Saleh, J Nucl Ene Sci Power Generat Technol 2013, S1http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2325-9809.S1-006
International Publisher of Science, Technology and Medicine
All articles published in Journal of Nuclear Energy Science & Power Generation Technology are the property of SciTechnol, and is protected by copyright laws. Copyright © 2013, SciTechnol, All Rights Reserved.
Journal of Nuclear Energy Science & Power Generation Technology
Composite Materials for the Improvement of Radioactive Waste Containers: Structures and Characterization
The packaging process is to reduce or even to retard the release of the radio contaminants to the surrounding environment. Improving of containers used for radioactive wastes packaging was studied extensively. Polymers, cement concrete, stainless steel for example were used for preparing the containers that used for transportation or disposal of radioactive wastes. In conclusion the use of container as external barrier could be recommended
as possible additives to improve the connement efciency of the disposed
Radioactive wastes; Radioactive waste disposal; Radiocontaminants; Packaging process; Radiation resistance; Containers
According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), radioactive waste can be deﬁned as “material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than clearance levels established by the appropriate authority and or which no use is oreseen” .Te generated radioactive wastes are varied in orm, activity and type o contamination as they are in type o generating activity. It may be solid, liquid or gaseous. Within these groups are a variety o waste types such as trash, spent radioactive sources, pumps, pipes, ion exchange resins, sludges, and spent nuclear uel. Activity levels range rom extremely high levels associated with spent uel and residues rom uel reprocessing to very low levels associated with waste rom radioisotope applications in laboratories, hospitals, etc. Equally broad is the spectrum o hal-lives o the radionuclides contained in the radioactive waste. Which radionuclides are present will depend on the generating process; they may include uranium and other naturally occurring, transuranic and/or speciﬁc man-made radionuclides .Radioactive waste containers provide protective barriers against physical and chemical stresses during transportation, interim storage and ﬁnal disposal o the radioactive dangerous wastes . Te containers are varies rom steel drums to concrete boxes . Tey are classiﬁed into diﬀerent subcategories depending on the activity content
Hosam El-Din Mostafa Saleh, Radioisotope Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Dokki 12311, Giza, Egypt, Tel: +201005191018; Fax: +202 37493042; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
September 05, 2013
October 21, 2013
November 01, 2013
and hal-lie o nuclides contained in the waste. Te key perormance parameter o any container is the resistance to environmental attack (chemical perormance) .Te main goal o this process was to avoid leaching and migration o the radionuclides to surroundings. Te presented containers were subjected to chemical and physical investigations as well as to some mechanical evaluations in order to ensure the improvement ﬁgured rom the improved containers.
Radioactive Waste Classiﬁcation According to Disposal
Diﬀerent trends have been used or classiﬁcation o radioactive wastes; one o these is based on the disposal concept. Tis method o classiﬁcation has been derived mainly rom the saety aspects o radioactive waste disposal, but can be developed into the other stages o radioactive waste management. It is reasonable to start classiﬁcation rom the point o disposal to keep consistency among the diﬀerent stages o radioactive waste management.Te International Atomic Energy Agency has proposed a quantitative classiﬁcation or radioactive wastes relevant to disposal concept. Five categories are proposed taking in account a group o the properties, such as hal-lie and heat generation capacity . Boundary levels between classes are presented as orders o magnitude and typical characteristics o waste classes and summarized in able 1. A more detailed classiﬁcation o radioactive waste which provides a urther subdivision o wastes within waste classes will depend on individual national programmes or requirements. Also addressed are suggestions or application o the modiﬁed classiﬁcation system to actual disposal acilities . Application o a classiﬁcation system or the management o radioactive waste implies an adequate separation o wastes generated. A decision chart or the segregation o radioactive and exempt waste is presented in Figure 1.
Strategies of Radioactive Waste Management
Radioactive waste management is used in two senses. In the ﬁrst place, it means the process or disposing o waste in a way that saeguards the environment and the health o the public. In this sense, radioactive waste management is a tool o public health control and or applying the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) policy on public exposure to the area o waste disposal. Secondly, it can mean the whole sequence o operations starting with the generation o waste, passing through storage, and ending with disposal. In this sense, it is analogous to any set o operations, such as uel abrication or the practice o nuclear medicine and the ICRP recommendations apply to it as to any practice .
Segregation and Packaging of Radioactive Waste
wo types o segregation are in place: a physical segregation o the types o waste and isotope hal-lie segregation within some physical types. Te physical types segregated include: dry solids, aqueous liquids, animal carcasses, scintillation vials, and mixed wastes. Tere are three categories or segregating dry waste and aqueous liquid waste based on the hal-lie o the radioactive material.