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The Incidence of Burn Injuries Had Been Declining During The

The Incidence of Burn Injuries Had Been Declining During The

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Published by james garcia

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Published by: james garcia on Sep 28, 2009
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05/19/2012

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Burn
 The incidence of burn injuries had been declining during the past several decades.Approximately 2 million people require medical attention for burn injury. Young childrenand elderly people are at particularly high risk for burn injury. The skin in people in thesetwo age groups is thin and fragile; therefore, even a limited period of contact with asource of heat can create a full thickness of burn.Most injuries occur in the home, usually in the kitchen while cooking and in the bathroom by means of scalds or improper use of electrical appliances around water sources. Careless cooking is the one of the leading cause of fires in all over the world.Burn Prevention Tips
Keep matches and lighters out of reach of the children
 Never leave unattended around fire or in bathroom/bathtub
Install and maintain smoke detectors in the home
Develop and practice and practice home exit fire drill
Set the water heater temperature no higher than 120F
Do not smoke in bed. Do not fall asleep while smoking
Do not throw flammable liquids on to an already burning fire
Do not use flammable liquids to start fires
Do not remove radiator cap from a hot engine
Watch for overhead electrical wires and underground wires when working outside
 Never store flammable liquids near a fire source, such as a pilot light
Use caution while cooking
Keep a working fire extinguisher in your home
 
Characteristics of Burn According to DepthBurn andcausesSkininvolvementSymptoms WoundappearanceRecuperativecourseSuperficialPartialThickness (1
st
degree burn)Epidermis; possibly a portion of dermis; mostcommon-sunburnTinglingHyperesthiaPain that issoothed bycoolingReddened; blanchesw/pressure dryMinimal or noedemaPossible blistersCompleterecovery withina week, noscarringPeelingDeep PartialThickness (2
nd
degree burn)Epidermis;upper dermis’ portion of deeper dermisPainHyperesthiaSensitive tocold air Blistered;mottled red base; brokenepidermis;weepingsurfaceEdemaRecovery in 2to 4 weeksSome scarringanddepigmentationcontracturesInfection myconvert it to fullthicknessFull Thickness(3
rd
degree burn)Epidermis;entire dermis,and sometimessubcutaneoustissue; mayinvolveconnectivetissue, muscle,and bonePain freeShock Hematuria(blood in theurine)and possiblyhemolysis(blood celldestruction)Possiblyentrance andexit wounds(electrical burn)Dry; pale whiteleathery, or 
 
charredBroken skinwith fatexposedEdemaEschar sloughsGraftingScarring andloss of contour and fxn;contracturesLoss of digitsor extremity possible
 
Local and Systemic Response to Burns
Burns that do not exceed 25% TBSA produce a primarily local response
Burns that exceed 25% TBSA may produce both a local and systemicresponse and are considered major burn injuries Cardiovascular Response
Hypovolemia is the immediate consequence of fluid loss resulting indecreased perfusion and oxygen delivery
Cardiac output decrease before any significant change in blood volume isevident
The greatest volume of fluid leak occurs in the first 24-36 hours after the burn, peaking by 6-8 hours Burn Edema
Edema maximal after 24 hours
It begins to resolve 1-2 days post burns and usually is completely resolved in7-10 days post injury
Edema increase in circumferential burns, pressure on small blood vessels andnerve in distal extremities cause an obstruction of blood flow and consequentischemia Effects on Fluids and Electrolytes and Blood Volume
Evaporative fluid loss through the burn wound may reach 3 to 5 L or moreover a 24 hour period until the burn surfaces are covered
Hyponatremia is most common during the first week of the acute phase, aswater shifts from the interstitial to the vascular space
Immediately after burn injury, hyperkalemia (excessive potassium) resultsfrom massive cell destruction. Hypokelamia (potassium depletion) may occur later with fluid shifts from the interstitial to the vascular space

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