: Cancer cells are found only on the inner lining of the bladder.
: Cancer cells have proliferated to the layer beyond the inner lining of theurinary bladder but not to the muscles of the urinary bladder.
: Cancer cells have proliferated to the muscles in the bladder wall but notto the fatty tissue that surrounds the urinary bladder.
: Cancer cells have proliferated to the fatty tissue surrounding theurinary bladder and to the prostate gland, vagina, or uterus, but not to the lymphnodes or other organs.
: Cancer cells have proliferated to the lymph nodes, pelvic or abdominalwall, and/or other organs.
: Cancer has recurred in the urinary bladder or in another nearbyorgan after having been treated
70-80% is superficial (in lamina propria or mucosa)Usually highly differenciated with long survival
Initial event seems to be activation on oncogene on chromosome 9
20% of tumors are invasive (deeper than lamina propia) at presentation:Tend to be high grade with worse prognosis.
Hematuria-gross or microscopic, usually painless
Urinary symptom- frequency, urgency and dysuria3.Any alteration of voiding or change in the urine is indicative
Pelvic or back pain may occur with metastasis
Assessment and Diagnostic Methods
Biopsies of tumor and adjacent mucosa are definitive, but the followingprocedures are also used:1.Cystoscopy, biopsy of tumor and adjacent mucosa2.Excretory urography3.Computed Tomography (CT) scan