Systems Engineering FundamentalsChapter 13
118efficient test planning; result prediction; supple-ment to actual test and evaluation; manufacturing;and logistics support. With so many opportunitiesto use M&S, its four major benefits; cost savings,accelerated schedule, improved product quality andcost avoidance can be achieved in any systemdevelopment when appropriately applied. DoD andindustry around the world have recognized theseopportunities, and many are taking advantage of the increasing capabilities of computer and infor-mation technology. M&S is now capable of prototyping full systems, networks, interconnect-ing multiple systems and their simulators so thatsimulation technology is moving in every directionconceivable.
13.2CLASSES OF SIMULATIONS
The three classes of models and simulations arevirtual, constructive, and live:
simulations represent systems bothphysically and electronically. Examples are air-craft trainers, the Navy’s Battle Force TacticalTrainer, Close Combat Tactical Trainer, andbuilt-in training.
simulations represent a systemand its employment. They include computermodels, analytic tools, mockups, IDEF, FlowDiagrams, and Computer-Aided Design/ Manu-facturing (CAD/CAM).
simulations are simulated operations withreal operators and real equipment. Examplesare fire drills, operational tests, and initialproduction run with soft tooling.
Virtual simulations put the human-in-the-loop. Theoperator’s physical interface with the system isduplicated, and the simulated system is made toperform as if it were the real system. The operatoris subjected to an environment that looks, feels,and behaves like the real thing. The more advancedversion of this is the virtual prototype, which allowsthe individual to interface with a virtual mockupoperating in a realistic computer-generated envir-onment. A virtual prototype is a computer-basedsimulation of a system or subsystem with a degreeof functional realism that is comparable to that of a physical prototype.
The purpose of systems engineering is to developdescriptions of system solutions. Accordingly, con-structive simulations are important products in allkey system engineering tasks and activities. Of special interest to the systems engineer are Com-puter-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools. Computer-aided tools can allow more in-depth and completeanalysis of system requirements early in design.They can provide improved communication be-cause data can be disseminated rapidly to severalindividuals concurrently, and because designchanges can be incorporated and distributedexpeditiously. Key computer-aided engineeringtools are CAD, CAE, CAM, Continuous Acquisi-tion and Life Cycle Support, and Computer-AidedSystems Engineering:
Computer-Aided Design (CAD).
CAD tools areused to describe the product electronically tofacilitate and support design decisions. It can modeldiverse aspects of the system such as how compo-nents can be laid out on electrical/electronic cir-cuit boards, how piping or conduit is routed, orhow diagnostics will be performed. It is used tolay out systems or components for sizing, posi-tioning, and space allocating using two- or three-dimensional displays. It uses three-dimensional“solid” models to ensure that assemblies, surfaces,intersections, interfaces, etc., are clearly defined.Most CAD tools automatically generate isometricand exploded views of detailed dimensional andassembly drawings, and determine component sur-face areas, volumes, weights, moments of inertia,centers of gravity, etc. Additionally, many CADtools can develop three-dimensional models of facilities, operator consoles, maintenance work-stations, etc., for evaluating man-machine inter-faces. CAD tools are available in numerous vari-eties, reflecting different degrees of capabilities,fidelity, and cost. The commercial CAD/CAMproduct, Computer-Aided Three-Dimensional