According to Sheldon each of us could be rated on a 7-point scaleas to the amount of each form represented in our body on threedifferent general forms of human physique identified by him.
He suggested that continuity, or a high correlation, existsbetween physique and behavior.
Raymond B. Cattell’s Factor Theory:
Raymond B. Cattell relied on data collected from three sourcesfor the description and analysis of personality: a person's liferecord, self-ratings, and objective tests.
Through complex statistical analyses, Cattell identified majorpersonality factors both within individuals and across people ingeneral .e.g. outgoing—reserved, stable—emotional, suspicious—trusting etc.
Cattell distinguishes between
, which areobservable patterns of behavior, and
, which heviewed as underlying, internal traits responsible for our overtbehavior;
-- those possessed by all -- and
-- those typical of only one person.
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES:Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory:
Sigmund Freud argued that we are not even aware of all theforces controlling our behavior -- we are subject to unconsciousurges.
He established the iceberg model of the human mind. Hebelieved just like the greater part of an iceberg lies below thewater, the greater part of the human mind remains below thesurface of the conscious. He labeled the part of the mind abovethe water the
, and the parts below the
. The conscious mind we areaware of, the preconscious mind we can be aware of by focusingon it and the unconscious remains a mystery.
Freud developed the concepts of the
interacting systems. The id (the initial systempresent at birth) has to do with our most basic desires withoutany regard for the needs or concerns of others. The ego serves tobalance the demands of the id against those of the superego byrealistically assessing the limits imposed by the real world. Itserves an executive function to maximize the benefits to thewhole person. The superego being the last of the three todevelop is concerned completely with the good of society.
According to Freud,
forces of life
(both life and death instincts which show a balance