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Final OB Assgn

Final OB Assgn

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Published by: HayyaAli on Sep 28, 2009
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10/20/2012

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PERSONALI TY THEORIES
OrganizationalBehaviour
Submitted by:Engr. Tayyaba & Engr.PakeezaB.sc Industrial engg &ManagementUniversity of Punjab
 
PERSONALITY:
Most people use the term "personality "to identify the most obviouscharacteristic of a person or to refer to that person's social skills.Personality may be defined as:
“The dynamic organization within an individual of thosesystems that determine his or her characteristic behavior and thought.”
According to this definition personality has following dimensions:
Organized
Active or changing
Unique
Stability is implied and
 There may be multiple causes of our behavior
PERSONALITY THEORIES:
“Theories of personality organize what we do know,stimulate new research, and formally specify a viewof personality.
Psychologists are mainly interested in personality to:(1) Explain why people with similar heredity, experience, andmotivation may react differently in the same situation.(2) Explain why people with different heredity, past experiences,and/or motivation may nevertheless react similarly in the samesituation.Which personality theory we're discussing largely determines how wedefine personality, what elements of personality are being emphasized,and what techniques of study will be applied.Personality theories have been divided into five groups:i.Trait theoriesii.Psychoanalytic theoriesiii.Behavioral or social learning theoriesiv.Self-Growth theoriesv.Modern big five theories
SUMMARIES OF PERSONALITY THEORIES:BIOLOGICAL (OR TRAIT) THEORIES:William Sheldon’s Theory of Constitutional Psychology:
Sheldon in his theory proposed that body features might be usedto influence and thus predict certain features of personality.
 
According to Sheldon each of us could be rated on a 7-point scaleas to the amount of each form represented in our body on threedifferent general forms of human physique identified by him.
He suggested that continuity, or a high correlation, existsbetween physique and behavior.
Raymond B. Cattell’s Factor Theory:
Raymond B. Cattell relied on data collected from three sourcesfor the description and analysis of personality: a person's liferecord, self-ratings, and objective tests.
 Through complex statistical analyses, Cattell identified majorpersonality factors both within individuals and across people ingeneral .e.g. outgoing—reserved, stable—emotional, suspicious—trusting etc.
Cattell distinguishes between
surface traits
, which areobservable patterns of behavior, and
source traits
, which heviewed as underlying, internal traits responsible for our overtbehavior;
general traits
-- those possessed by all -- and
specific traits
-- those typical of only one person.
PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORIES:Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory:
Sigmund Freud argued that we are not even aware of all theforces controlling our behavior -- we are subject to unconsciousurges.
He established the iceberg model of the human mind. Hebelieved just like the greater part of an iceberg lies below thewater, the greater part of the human mind remains below thesurface of the conscious. He labeled the part of the mind abovethe water the
conscious
, and the parts below the
 preconscious
and
unconscious
. The conscious mind we areaware of, the preconscious mind we can be aware of by focusingon it and the unconscious remains a mystery.
Freud developed the concepts of the
id 
,
ego
, and
superego
asseparate but
 
interacting systems. The id (the initial systempresent at birth) has to do with our most basic desires withoutany regard for the needs or concerns of others. The ego serves tobalance the demands of the id against those of the superego byrealistically assessing the limits imposed by the real world. Itserves an executive function to maximize the benefits to thewhole person. The superego being the last of the three todevelop is concerned completely with the good of society.
According to Freud,
unconscious urges
,
forces of life
,
wealthof instincts
(both life and death instincts which show a balance

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