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Eye lecture guide

Eye lecture guide

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Published by maj
for ncm 104 lecture guide
for ncm 104 lecture guide

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Published by: maj on Sep 28, 2009
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11/20/2012

 
THE EYE
The human eye is the organ which gives us the sense of sight, allowing us tolearn more about the surrounding world than we do with any of the other four senses. We use our eyes in almost every activity we perform, whether reading, working, watching television, writing a letter, driving a car, and incountless other ways. Most people probably would agree that sight is thesense they value more than all the rest.The eye allows us to see and interpret the shapes, colors, and dimensions of objects in the world by processing the light they reflect or emit. The eye isable to see in bright light or in dim light, but itcannot see objects when light is absent.
 process of vision
Light waves from an object (such as a tree) enter the eye first through the
, which is the clear dome at the front of the eye. The light thenprogresses through the
, the circular opening in the center of the colored
. Next, the light passes through the
, which is locatedimmediately behind the iris and the pupil.Initially, the light waves are bent or converged first by the cornea, and thenfurther by the
crystalline lens
, to a nodal point (N) located immediately behindthe back surface of the
lens
. At that point, the image becomes reversed(turned backwards) and inverted (turned upside-down).The light continues through the
, the clear gel that makes upabout 80% of the eye’s volume, and then, ideally, back to a clear focus on the
behind the
vitreous
. The small central area of the retina is the
,which provides the best vision of any location in the retina. If the eye isconsidered to be a type of camera, the retina is equivalent to the film inside of the camera, registering the tiny photons of light which interact with it.Within the layers of the retina, light impulses are changed into electricalsignals and then sent through the
, along the
, to theoccipital cortex at the posterior or back of the brain. Here, the electricalsignals are interpreted or “seen” by the brain as a visual image. When thelight entering the eyes is bright enough, the pupils will constrict (get smaller),due to the
.Actually, then, we do not “see” with our eyes but, rather, with our brains. Our eyes merely are the beginnings of the visual process.
eye growth
The average newborn’s eyeball is about 18 millimeters in diameter, from frontto back (axial length); it grows slightly to a length of approximately 19½
 
millimeters as an infant; and it continues to grow gradually to a length of about24-25 millimeters, or about 1 inch, in adulthood. (A ping-pong ball is about 1½inch in diameter, which makes the average adult eyeball about 2/3 the size of a ping-pong ball.) The eyeball is set in a protective cone-shaped cavity in theskull called the “orbit” or “socket.”
extraocular muscles
The orbit is surrounded by layers of soft, fatty tissue which protect the eye andenable it to turn easily. Three pairs of 
regulate themotion of each eye: the
medial/lateral rectus
muscles, the
superior/inferior rectus
muscles, and the
superior/inferior oblique
muscles.
eye structures
Among the most important components of the human eye are the
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,and
. Click on the names of each of these 9 ocular structures on the left (either in the upper picture or in the lower frame of links)to learn more about them. Then take the three short quizzes at the end, if youwish.
Eye Anatomy
A guide to the many parts of the human eye and how they function.
The ability to see is dependent on the actions of several structures in and aroundthe eyeball. The graphic below lists many of the essential components of theeye's optical system.
 
When you look at an object, light rays are reflected from the object to the
cornea
, which is where the miracle begins. The light rays are bent, refracted andfocused by the cornea,
lens
, and
vitreous
. The lens' job is to make sure the rayscome to a sharp focus on the
retina
. The resulting image on the retina is upside-down. Here at the retina, the light rays are converted to electrical impulseswhich are then transmitted through the
optic nerve
, to the brain, where theimage is translated and perceived in an upright position!
 
Think of the eye as a camera. A camera needs a lens and a film to produce animage. In the same way, the eyeball needs a lens (cornea, crystalline lens,vitreous) to refract, or focus the light and a film (retina) on which to focus therays. If any one or more of these components is not functioning correctly, theresult is a poor picture. The retina represents the film in our camera. It capturesthe image and sends it to the brain to be developed. The
macula
is the highlysensitive area of the retina. The macula is responsible for our critical focusingvision. It is the part of the retina most used. We use our macula to read or tostare intently at an object.
Buzzwords for eye anatomy
orbit: This cone shaped cavity in the skull is formed by the frontal, maxilla,zygomatic, sphenoid, ethmoid, lacrimal and palatine bones. These bones arethin and are often subject to fractures. The eye occupies the front portion onthe cavity with the rest being filled with fat, nerves,blood vessels,muscleand the lacrimal (tear) gland.
anterior chamber:
This front chamber of the three found in the eyeball itself is found between the cornea and the iris.
posterior chamber:
This chamber occupies space between the iris and thelens.
aqueous humor:
This fluid fills the anterior and posterior chambers. It ismade by cells of the ciliary body and circulates from the posterior chamber,over the lens, to the anterior chamber and exits via the Canal of Schlemm. It

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