Muhammad AbbasClass#22 & Reg. # 3076Assignment #01
other facilities are inade/uate. 0owever its ample capacity is of prime importance for thesafety of the dam and other hydraulic structures. 0ydraulic aspects of spillway designrelates to design of the three spillway components$ control structure, discharge channeland terminal structure.
%pillways may be classified, depending upon the type of structure as$ %ide channel spillway, %traight drop spillway, 'verflow or 'gee spillway hute or Trough spillway, %haft -1orning glory spillway and %iphon spillway.
are the temporary barrier installed over the permanent crest of the spillway, for storing additional water during dry weather season. %pillway gates can be provided on all types of spillways except siphon spillway, types of spillway gates are commonly used$ &lash board gates, %top logs or needle gates, +adial gates, #rum gates and vertical lift gates.
3. Flow measurement structures:-Weir, oriice and Flumes Weir
in general is any regular obstruction over which flow occurs. Weirs, especially thesharp!crested ones are commonly used for measuring large and small open flows in thefield or laboratory.
are devices in which the flow is locally accelerated by a streamlined lateral contraction in the channel sides. A flume has$ a convergent section, in which the flow accelerates, a throat section and a divergent section, in which the flow returns to normal &lumes are of two types$ non!modular or the venture flume and the modular or the standing wave flume. In the non!modular flume, the velocity at the throat is maintained below the critical value so that no standing wave is produced. 0owever, in the modular type, the flume is designed such that the velocity of flow at the throat is greater than the critical velocity thereby resulting in a standing wave within the flume.
!. Di"ersion structures --Weirs and #arrages
The construction wor done at the river or canal for diversion of water to the off!taing canal is nown as head!wor. #epending on the purpose, head!wors may be$ %torage head!wor which is constructed to store water for some purpose or it may be #iversion head!wor whose main purpose is to divert the re/uired /uantity of water into the off!taing canals for irrigation purpose.
Weir or $nicut
$ It is a solid wall of masonry or concrete constructed along the width of the river from one ban to the other to raise the water level on the upstream side so that proper supplies of water may be assured to the canals.
The function of a barrage is the same as that of a weir. In a barrage, a low height weir is constructed first and then according to design piers are constructed at regular intervals along the width of the river. The gaps between the piers are closed by means of gates, which can be lifted or lowered down mechanically or manually or both.
%. &on"eyance structures: 'pen c(annel, pressure conduits, canals and sewers