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Biodiesel Europe North America

Biodiesel Europe North America

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Published by: rafaeldesmonteiro on Sep 28, 2009
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PERGAMON
Renewable Energy 16 (1999) 1078-1083BIODIESEL PRODUCTION IN EUROPE AND NORTH AMERICA,AN ENCOURAGING PROSPECTW. KdRBlTZAustrian Biofuels InstituteP.O. Box 97, A - 1014 Vienna, AustriaABSTRACTAs used already by Rudolf Diesel in 1912 plant oils represent not a new alternative fuel comparedto fossil sources. but only by the force of the oil supply shocks in the 70s a new development ofBiodiesel was triggered. This paper gives a review of the political background, the historicaldevelopment since the beginnings in Austria and the volumes produced today
in the world, themain raw materials used,
key fuel properties and standards. It highlights the fuel’s environmentaladvantages and different marketing strategies applied as well as key factors of micro- and macro-economic considerations. 6 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.KEYWORDSBeef tallow; biodegradability: biodiesel; bioenergy; biofuels; fatty-acid-methyl-ester; rapeseed-oil-methyl-ester: non-food crops; oilseeds: waste oil.POLITICAL TRIGGERS FOR BIODIESELThe strongest impulse was given by the crisis in supply of mineral oil as the major source forenergy in the 70s and again by the Gulf war in 1991. Being highly dependent on huge imports offossil
oil
as a
finite
energy source the European Union has to face today again an increasing risk insecutiq of
energy supply
for the transport sector caused by the following issues as emphasised bythe International Energy Agency (IEA): a) the production-demand gap of fossil oil is decliningworld-wide, b) North Sea oil will be finished by the year 2010 latest, and c) the energy demand ofthe non-OECD world is growing dramatically e.g. in China.According to the IEA there will be a need for all alternative fuels for the transport sector. andBiodiesel will be one of them (European Commission. October 1996). The European Commissionproposes in the FORUM-scenario a 12 X market share for biofuels by the year 2020 (EuropeanCommission, Spring 1996).
0960-1481/99/Lsee front matter c; 1998 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.PII: SO960-1481(98)00406-6
 
WREC 19981079
Concerning environnun&
damage
the
transport sector has a clear responsibility.
Within the last 10
years its part in global warming potential has increased from less than 20 !I& o more than 25 %,now bigger than those
of the domestic and inslustrial
ector, while its contribution to acid pollutionconstitutes 75 % of total emissions of this pollution type. As one. reaction the European Commis-sion has developed a Directive on the Quality of Fuels withnew environmentally driven fuel specifications (European Commission, October 1997).Substantial and costly
overproduction of agricultural crops
for food has led to a reformed CommonAgricultural Policy introducing a set-aside percentage for food-crops but allowing to produce fornon-food crops, e.g. rapeseed. The initial percentage for set-aside of 15 % declined step by stepover the years to 5 % today, putting the young Biodiesel-industry at a substantial risk of rawmaterial shortage.The future agricultural policy however will have to consider, that with the enlargement of theEuropean Union by the Countries of Central Europe (CCE) tremendous opportunities for Biodieselproduction are opening up, as those countries have presently double the acreage per citizen com-pared to the EU-15 with an enormous potential in agro-productivity.MILESTONES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIODIESELFirst Biodiesel initiatives were reported in 1981 in South-Africa and then in 1982 in Austria,Germany and New Zealand. Already in 1985 a small
pilot plant
in Austria tested the production ofRME with a new technology (ambient pressure and temperature) and in 1990 the first farmers’ co-operative started commercial production of Biodiesel. In the same year the completion of a
largefleet tests
led to engine warranties by most of the tractor producers as e.g. John Deere, Ford,Massey-Ferguson, Mercedes, Same, as a big step forward towards a successful market introductionof Biodiesel.Another important step was the
first fuel standard ON C
1190 for Biodiesel in 1991 by the Aus-trian Standardisation Institute assuring a high quality of the fuel. Detailed tests on product proper-ties such as engine performance. emission reductions, biodegradability and toxicity were followed.while process economics improved as well continuously.Biodiesel plants were started. mainly in the European Union but also in East Europe, Malaysia andin the USA; the actual capacity and production figures are given in table 1.Table 1. Biodiesel capacities and production volumes1996 1996estimated in 1.000 mt:canacitiesoroductionAustria38 17Belgium200 20France310 227Germany287 63Italy199 141others14 6EU - 151.048474Czechia63 22Rest of Europe:: 8U.S.A.5Canada1 1Malavsia10 10(Austrian Biofuels Institute, 1997)1997oroduction2220250831091149545108110futurenroiects!100300702000530010020
 
1080WREC 1998
The year 19% was a big step forward marked by the start-up of
large industrial scale plants
inRouen / France and in Leer / Germany; - and by the milestone of
overall warranty
for all modelsof Volkswagen and Audi as trailblazers in the personal car sector. In the same year the foundationof the European Biodiesel Board as a professional organisation of all major Biodiesel producerstook place, indicating the further growth of a young industry.MAIN RAW MATERIALSIn the beginning was rapeseed or canola. With the high content of the monounsaturated oleic acid(C 18: 1) of about 60 %, the rather low level of saturated fatty acids (palmitic and stearic acid <6%) and also acceptable levels of linolenic acid (C l&3)
rapeseed-oil is a rather ideal raw mate-rial
for the European climate and of reasonable product stability expressed by an Iodine Value (IV)of < 115.Other raw materials used were palm-oil in Malaysia (Schiifer, 1991: Ahmad, 1997) and sunflower-oil in France and Italy, while soybean-oil became the raw material of choice in the USA. InNicaragua the locally available oil of
Jatropha curcas
plant is processed.Today low cost sources of triglyceride raw materials as e.g. used frying oils collected at restaurantsor even low grade beef tallow are used for Biodiesel production with improved process technolo-gies. At the end however it must be high quality standardised Biodiesel as demonstrated in relatedtests (Sams, 1996).KEY FUEL PROPERTIES OF BIODIESELIn testing plant oils as a fuel it was the first lesson to learn, that pure oils, even of fully re-finedquality, do not fit the modern fast running Diesel engine of high efficiency and with a low emis-sion profile. The methyl-esters were the plant oil derivative of choice, simple in production andcoming very close to the fuel properties of Diesel (table 2). There are slight but acceptable differ-ences in density and viscosity, the higher flash-point is a beneficial safety feature, and the sulphur-free plant oil is the reason for the excellent SO,-emissions of Biodiesel. Generally the Cetane no. ishigher for Biodiesel resulting in a smoother running of the engine with less noise.Table 2. Physical-chemical propertiesstandardised properties: unit Diesel Biodiesel (FAME)
.
EN 590: 1993DIN E 51.606:1997density at 15”kg/m3 820 - 860875 - 900viscosity at 40”mm*/s 2,00 - 4,503,5 - 5,0flash-point“C > 55> 110-sulphur X (m/m) < 0,20 < 0,OlCetane No.> 49> 49other properties:oxygen contentcaloric valueefficiency degree(Walter, 1992)Biodiesel (RME)% (m/m) 0.010,9MJ/dm3 35,632.9% 38,240.7

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