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About Banana

About Banana

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About Banana
About Banana

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Published by: ismvohra on Sep 28, 2009
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Banana
 
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see
Banana (disambiguation)
.
Banana
is the
common namefor a type of fruit and also theherbaceous plantsof the
genus
 
Musa
which produce thiscommonly eaten
fruit
. They are native to the tropical region of 
Southeast Asia. Bananas are likely to have been firstdomesticated in
Papua New Guinea
.
[
1
]
Today, they are cultivatedthroughout thetropics
.
[
2
]
 
Banana plants are of thefamily
 
Musaceae
. They are cultivated
primarily for their fruit, and to a lesser extent for the production of 
fibre
and asornamental plants. As the banana plants are normallytall and fairly sturdy they are often mistaken for trees
, but their 
main or upright stem is actually apseudostem. For some
species
 
this pseudostem can reach a
height
of up to 2
 –
8 m, with
leaves
of up to 3.5 m in
length
. Each pseudostem can produce a bunch of green bananas which when ripened often turn yellow or sometimesred. After bearing fruit, the pseudostem dies and is replaced by
another.
The banana fruit grow in hanging
clusters
, with up to 20 fruit to atier (called a
hand 
), and 3
 –
20tiersto a bunch. The total of the hanging clusters is known as a bunch, or commercially as a "banana stem", and can weigh from 30
 –
50 kg. The fruit averages 125 g, of which approximately
75% is
water 
and 25% dry matter content. Each individual fruit (known as a banana or 'finger') has a protectiveouter layer (a peel or skin) with a fleshy
edible
inner portion. Both skin and inner part can be eaten raw or cooked.Western culturesgenerally eat the inside raw and throw away the skin while some Asianculturesgenerally eatboth the skin and inside cooked. Typically, the fruit has numerous strings (called '
phloem
 
bundles') which run
between the skin and inner part. The inner part of the common yellow dessert variety splits easily lengthwise intothree strips. Bananas are a valuable source of 
vitamin B
6
,
vitamin C
, andpotassium
.
Bananas are grown in at least 107countries
.
[
3
]
In
popular culture
andcommerce, "banana" usually refers to soft,sweet "dessert" bananas. The bananas from a group of 
cultivars
with firmer, starchier fruit are calledplantains
.
Bananas may also be cut and dried and eaten as a type of chip. Dried bananas are also ground into banana flour.Although the wild species have fruits with numerous large, hardseeds
, virtually all culinary bananas have
seedless fruits. Bananas are classified either asdessertbananas (meaning they are yellow and fully ripe when eaten) or as green cooking bananas. Almost all export bananas are of the dessert types; however, only about 10
 –
15% of all production is for export
, with the
United Statesand
European Union
being the dominant buyers.
 
Banana
 
'Cavendish' bananas
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Plantae
 
Family:
Musaceae
 
Genus:Musa
 
Contents
 
1
 
Botany
 
2
 
Properties
 
3
 
Trade
 
4
 
History
 
4.1
 
Early cultivation
 
4.2
 
Plantation cultivation
 
5
 
Cultivation
 
6
 
Pests, diseases, and natural disasters
 
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languages
 
Aragon
é
s
 
Asturianu
 
Aymar aru
 
B
ân
-
l
â
m
-
 
Bosanski
 
Български
 
Català
 
Č
esky
 
Cymraeg
 
Dansk
 
Deutsch
 
Din
é
bizaad
 
Eesti
 
Ελληνικά
 
 
Botany
 
The banana plant is a pseudostem that grows to 6 to 7.6 metres (20
 –
25 feet)
tall, growing from acorm
. Leaves are spirally arranged and may grow 2.7
metres (9 ft) long and 60 cm (2 ft) wide.
[
4
]
The banana plant is the largest of 
all herbaceous flowering plants.
[
5
]
The large leaves grow whole, but are easily
torn by the wind, resulting in the familiar frond look.
[
6
]
 
A single,
sterile, male banana flower, also known as the
banana heart 
is
normally produced by each stem (though on rare occasions more can be
produced
—a single plant in thePhilippines
has five
[
7
]
). Banana hearts areused as a
vegetable
in
Southeast Asia
, steamed, in
salads, or eaten raw.
[
8
]
 
The female flowers are produced further up the stem and produce the actual
fruit without requiring fertilization. The fruit has been described as a "leatheryberry".
[
9
]
In cultivated varieties, the seeds have degenerated nearly to non
-
existence; their remnants are tiny blackspecks in the interior of the fruit. The ovary is inferior to the flower; because of their stiff stems and the positioning
of the ovary and flower, bananas grow sticking up, not hanging down.
Some sources assert that the genus of the banana,
Musa
, is named for Antonio Musa, physician to the Emperor Augustus
.
[
10
]
Others say that
Linnaeus
, who gave the genus its name in
1750
, simply adapted anArabic
word for 
banana,
mauz 
.
[
11
]
The word
banana
itself comes from the Arabic word
banan
, which means "finger".
[
11
]
The
genus contains numerous species; several produce edible fruit, while others are cultivated as ornamentals.
[
12
]
 
Properties
 
6.1
 
Major diseases
 
6.1.1
 
In Australia
 
6.1.2
 
In East Africa
 
7
 
Health effects
 
8
 
Fibre
 
8.1
 
Textiles
 
8.2
 
Paper 
 
9
 
Storage and transport
 
10
 
Usage in culture
 
10.1
 
Peels
 
10.2
 
Arts
 
10.3
 
Symbols
 
11
 
Gallery
 
12
 
See also
 
12.1
 
Culinary usage
 
13
 
Footnotes
 
14
 
References
 
15
 
Further reading
 
16
 
External links
 
This section requiresexpansion
.
 
Bananas displayed in a
Singaporesupermarket.
 
Españ
ol
 
Esperanto
 
Euskara
 
Fran
ç
ais
 
G
à
idhlig
 
Galego
 
 
 
Hrvatski
 
Ido
 
Bahasa Indonesia
 
Interlingua
 Í
slenska
 
Italiano
 
Basa Jawa
 
Kapampangan
 
ქართული 
Kinyarwanda
 
Kiswahili
 
Krey
ò
l ayisyen
 
Latina
 
Latvie
š
u
 
Lietuvi
ų 
 
Lumbaart
 
Magyar 
 
Македонски
 
Malagasy
 
Bahasa Melayu
 
Монгол
 
Nāhuatl
 
Nederlands
 
hiyaw
ē
win /
      
 
 
Norsk (bokmål)
 
Norsk (nynorsk)
 
Polski
 
Portugu
ê
s
 
Rom
ână
 
Runa Simi
 
Русский
 
Scots
 
Sicilianu
 
 
Bananas come in a variety of sizes andcolorswhen ripe, includingyellow, purple, and red. Bananas can be eaten raw though some
varieties are generally cooked first. Depending upon cultivar and
ripeness, the flesh can vary in taste from starchy to sweet, and texture
from firm to mushy. Unripe or green bananas and
plantains
are used for 
cooking various dishes such as banana pudding and are the staplestarchof manytropical
populations. Banana sap is extremely sticky
and can be used as a practical adhesive. Sap can be obtained from thepseudostem, from the fruit peelings, or from the fruit flesh.Most production for local sale is of green cooking bananas andplantains, as ripe dessert bananas are easily damaged while beingtransported to market. Even when transported only within their country
of origin, ripe bananas suffer a high rate of damage and loss.
[
citation needed 
]
 
The commercial dessert cultivars most commonly eaten in
temperate
 
countries (species
Musa acuminata
or the
hybrid
 
Musa
×
 
 paradisiaca
,
acultigen) are imported in large quantities from the tropics. They arepopular in part because, being a non
-
seasonal crop, they are available
fresh year 
-
round. In global commerce, by far the most important of these banana
cultivars
is '
Cavendish
', which accounts for the vast bulk
of bananas exported from the tropics. The Cavendish gained popularity
in the 1950s after the previously mass produced cultivar,Gros Michel
,
became commercially unviable due toPanama disease, a fungus whichattacks the roots of the banana plant.The most important properties making 'Cavendish' the main exportbanana are related to transport and shelf life rather than taste; major 
commercial cultivars rarely have a superior flavor 
[
citation needed 
]
compared to the less widespread cultivars. Exportbananas are picked green, and then usually ripened in ripening rooms when they arrive in their country of destination. These are special rooms made air 
-
tight and filled withethylenegas to induce ripening. Bananas canbe ordered by the retailer "ungassed", however, and may show up at the supermarket still fully green. While thesebananas will ripen more slowly, the flavor will be notably richer 
[
citation needed 
]
, and the banana peel can be allowedto reach a yellow/brown speckled phase, and yet retain a firm flesh inside. Thus, shelf life is somewhat extended.The vivid yellow color normally associated with supermarket bananas is in fact a side
-
effect of the artificial ripeningprocess. Cavendish bananas that have been allowed to ripen naturally on the plant have a greenish
-
yellow
appearance which changes to a brownish
-
yellow as they ripen further. Although both the flavor and texture of "treeripened" bananas is generally regarded as superior to any type green
-
picked fruit, once natural ripening hascommenced the shelf life is typically only 7
 –
10 days, making commercial distribution impractical. For mostpeople the only practical means of obtaining such fruit is growing it themselves, however this is also somewhatproblematic, as the bananas all tend to ripen at once and have very poor keeping properties.
The flavor and texture of bananas are also affected by the temperature at which they ripen. Bananas arerefrigerated to between 13.5 and 15
°
C (57 and 59
°
F) during transportation. At lower temperatures, the ripening of bananas permanently stalls, and the bananas will eventually turn gray as cell walls break down. The skins of ripebananas will quickly turn black in the 4
°
C environment of a domestic refrigerator, although the fruit inside remains
unaffected.
It should be noted that
Musa
×
 
 paradisiaca
is also the generic name for the common
plantain
, a coarser andstarchier variant not to be confused with
Musa acuminata
or the Cavendish variety.
In addition to the fruit, the
flower 
of the banana plant (also known as
banana
blossom
or 
banana heart 
) is used in
Southeast Asian
,
Telugu
,
Tamil
,
Bengali
,
andKerala (India) cuisine
, either served raw or steamed with dips or cookedin soups and curries. Banana flowers are somewhat similar in taste toartichokesand can be eaten in much the same way where one scrapes ofthe fleshy part of the petals and eats the whole of the heart. The tender coreof the banana plant's trunk is also used in Telugu, Bengali and Keralacooking, and notably in theBurmese
dish
mohinga
.
Bananas fried with batter 
 
Banana, raw, edible parts
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy90 kcal 370 kJ
Carbohydrates
 
22.84 g
-
 
Sugars 12.23 g
-
 
Dietary fiber 
2.6 g
Fat
0.33 g
Protein
1.09 g
Vitamin A
equiv. 3
μ
g
0%
Thiamine (Vit. B1)0.031 mg
2%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)
0.073 mg
5%
Niacin (Vit. B3)
0.665 mg
4%
Pantothenic acid(B5) 0.334 mg
7%
Vitamin B60.367 mg
28%
Folate
(Vit. B9) 20
μ
g
5%
Vitamin C8.7 mg
15%
Calcium
5 mg
1%
Iron0.26 mg
2%Magnesium
27 mg 7%
Phosphorus
22 mg
3%
Potassium
358 mg
8%
Zinc0.15 mg
1%
One banana is 100
 –150 g.
 
Percentages are relative to USrecommendationsfor adults.
 
Source:USDA Nutrient database
 
Simple English
 
Sloven
č
ina
 
Sloven
ščina
 
Српски
/
Srpski
 
Srpskohrvatski /Српскохрватски
 
Basa Sunda
 
Suomi
 
Svenska
 
Tagalog
 
lea faka
-
Tonga
 
T
ü
rkç
e
 
Українська
 
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ế
ng Vi
t 
West
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Vlams
 
Winaray
 
 
Ž
emait
ėš
ka
 
 

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