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“Energy Consumption of Mexican Households,” by Ignacio César Cruz Islas

“Energy Consumption of Mexican Households,” by Ignacio César Cruz Islas

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Energy consumption of households is closely linked to domestic activities, the social and economic status of people, and practices that surround their daily lives. The objective of this article is to study energy consumption patterns in Mexican households, at a specific moment in time, by incorporating two levels of analysis. First, the linkage between energy consumption of households within a particular geographical context¬—urban and non-urban areas—and regions of the country is examined. Second, the relationship between energy consumption and socio-demographic characteristics of Mexican households is assessed. Using income and expenditure survey ENIGH 2008 as the information source, we construct a proxy for energy consumption. To obtain this proxy we use electricity and fuel spending; next we calculate energy units according to their energy content. As a final result there are two logistic regression models. In these models we use energy consumption per household and per capita as dependent variables, respectively. (This was published in the Journal of Energy and Development as Ignacio César Cruz Islas, “Energy Consumption of Mexican Households,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 38, number 2 (spring 2013, copyright 2013), pp. 189–219.)
Energy consumption of households is closely linked to domestic activities, the social and economic status of people, and practices that surround their daily lives. The objective of this article is to study energy consumption patterns in Mexican households, at a specific moment in time, by incorporating two levels of analysis. First, the linkage between energy consumption of households within a particular geographical context¬—urban and non-urban areas—and regions of the country is examined. Second, the relationship between energy consumption and socio-demographic characteristics of Mexican households is assessed. Using income and expenditure survey ENIGH 2008 as the information source, we construct a proxy for energy consumption. To obtain this proxy we use electricity and fuel spending; next we calculate energy units according to their energy content. As a final result there are two logistic regression models. In these models we use energy consumption per household and per capita as dependent variables, respectively. (This was published in the Journal of Energy and Development as Ignacio César Cruz Islas, “Energy Consumption of Mexican Households,” The Journal of Energy and Development, volume 38, number 2 (spring 2013, copyright 2013), pp. 189–219.)

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01/30/2014

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THE JOURNAL OF ENERGY AND DEVELOPMENT
Ignac
io César Cruz Islas
,
“  
Energy Consumption of Mexican Households 
 ,”  
 
Volume 38, Number 2 Copyright 2013
 
ENERGY CONSUMPTION OFMEXICAN HOUSEHOLDS
 Ignacio
esar Cruz Islas
*
 Background 
I
n recent decades there has been a significant and widespread increase in energyconsumption. This increase is due to the intensification of productive activities, but also to growing population energy usage for daily activities, both indoors and outdoors, such as transportation, lighting, and entertainment, among others. Thistrend of rising energy consumption has a number of developmental and envi-ronmental implications.Energy consumption is associated with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.These are long-lived gases, whose concentration in the earth’s atmosphere in-creases when the volume of gas emitted exceeds the natural capacity of absorption processes that exist on the planet. Many of these gases are produced by fossil fuelsused as energy sources. With detectable increases in the earth’s average temper-ature and irregular seasonal weather conditions occurring, GHG emissions have become linked with a phenomenon referred to as climate change (CC) or globalwarming.Given that these changes are linked to human activity, there is concern aboutCC in various public and private spheres. For that reason, it is a phenomenon thatis being studied from various perspectives—many of which address the quanti-tative aspects—and a macro-level approach is commonly used.
*Ignacio C
esar Cruz Islas, research professor at El Colegio del Estado de Hidalgo, in Pachuca,Mexico, holds a master’s degree in population studies from the Universidad Autonoma del Estado deHidalgo, and a Ph.D. in the same field from El Colegio de Mexico. The author focuses his academicresearch on sustainable development and social vulnerability.
The Journal of Energy and Development 
, Vol. 38, Nos. 1 and 2Copyright
 
 2013 by the International Research Center for Energy and Economic Development(ICEED). All rights reserved.
189
 
Thus, countries and regions are the main population reference of energy con-sumption and greenhouse gas emissions in available studies. However, the micro-social approach is becoming more widely considered for general social research. Inthe arena ofpopulation studies,thedevelopment ofthis lineofresearchis emerging.To conduct a study with a micro-social approach, a first consideration is thathumans consume energy both individually and in groups, depending upon their daily activities. In that sense, domestic space intimacy is an ideal place to see first-hand population attitudes and energy consumption practices.To conduct a study, as presented in this paper, that utilizes a micro-socialapproach and analyzes activities taking place in the domestic space has both its pros and cons. The main advantage we have for this work is that there are varioussources of information for Mexico where the analysis unit is households. Amongthese are income and spending surveys. The most notable disadvantage is the lack of information sources about energy consumption that would allow us to captureattitudes and practices surrounding daily life analysis.Household energy consumption is related to daily activities such as cooking,hot water use, and home lighting. It also is linked to the supply of goods and services and the transport of household members.
1
Although it is important tostudy energy use linked to both sources, in this article we focus on energy con-sumption arising from everyday activities within households. It should be noted that it is somewhat more difficult to estimate energy consumption for household member transport and the provision of goods and services.To explain consumption from a macroeconomic perspective, various theoriesfocus on household income. The propensity to consume depends on household disposable income at a moment along a time line.
2
But it depends, too, on long-term expected income and thus involving loan financing probabilities.
3
Other theories suggest that the propensity for household consumption is de-termined not only by income but by sociocultural elements, which must also comeinto consideration. For example, there is a social comparison effect that exists between members of the same socioeconomic environment.
4
Because disposable income varies according to the social mobility possibilitiesof individuals and their needs along the life cycle, A. Ando and F. Modiglianisuggest that household consumption is determined by income evolution.
5
Under this view, the propensity to consume also involves household factors, such as ageof household head, assets accumulated, and more than one income earner.
6
The microeconomic approach addresses the fact that households are not a ho-mogeneous unit. It is recognized that there is a dynamic within each household leading to its own style of consumption. Therefore, the propensity to consumeinvolves individual preferences, the interaction of household members in decisionmaking, and internal household income distribution.
7
In summary, although income is the main determinant of household con-sumption, it also is mediated by other factors. Some of these factors are individualTHE JOURNAL OF ENERGY AND DEVELOPMENT190

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