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Basics of finite element method 02

# Basics of finite element method 02

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Introduction to Finite Element Method
Introduction to Finite Element Method

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Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element MethodChapter 1. Introduction© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati
7
II. Review of Matrix Algebr
Linear System of Algebraic Equations
axaxaxbaxaxaxbaxaxaxb
nnnnnnnnnn
11112211211222221122
+ + + =+ + + =+ + + =
................ (1)where
x
1
, x
2
, ..., x
n
are the unknowns.In
matrix form
:
Axb
=
(2)where
[ ]
{ } { }
Axb
= == == =
aaaaaaaaaa x x x xbbbb
ijnnnnnninin
1112121222121212
.....................:: (3)
A
is called a
n×n
(square) matrix, and
x
and
b
are (column)vectors of dimension
n
.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element MethodChapter 1. Introduction© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati
8
Row and Column Vector
[ ]
vw
= =
vvvwww
123123
For two matrices
A
and
B
, both of the
same size
(
m×n
), theaddition and subtraction are defined by
CABDAB
= + = += =
with with
cabdab
ijijijijijij
Scalar Multiplication
[ ]
λ λ
A
=
a
ij
Matrix Multiplicatio
For two matrices
A
(of size
l×m
) and
B
(of size
m×n
), the product of
AB
is defined by
CAB
= =
=
with
cab
ijimkj
1
where
i
= 1, 2, ...,
;
j
= 1, 2, ...,
n
. Note that, in general,
ABBA
, but
()()
ABCABC
=
(associative).

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element MethodChapter 1. Introduction© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati
9
Transpose of a Matri
If
A
= [
a
ij
], then the transpose of
A
is
[ ]
A
ji
a
=
Notice that ()
ABBA
TT
=
.
Symmetric Matri
A
square
(
n×n
) matrix
A
is called symmetric, if
AA
=
or
aa
ijji
=
Unit (Identity) Matri
I
=
100010001..................... Note that
AI
=
A
,
Ix
=
x
.
Determinant of a Matri
The determinant of
square
matrix
A
is a scalar number denoted by det
A
or |
A
|. For 2
×
2 and 3
×
3 matrices, their determinants are given by
det