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Basics of finite element method 02

Basics of finite element method 02

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Introduction to Finite Element Method
Introduction to Finite Element Method

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Published by: hasib on Jan 30, 2014
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 Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element MethodChapter 1. Introduction© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati
7
II. Review of Matrix Algebr
Linear System of Algebraic Equations 
axaxaxbaxaxaxbaxaxaxb
nnnnnnnnnn
11112211211222221122
+ + + =+ + + =+ + + =
................ (1)where
 x
1
 , x
2
 , ..., x
n
 are the unknowns.In
matrix form
:
Axb
=
 (2)where
[ ]
{ } { }
Axb
= == == =
aaaaaaaaaa x x x xbbbb
ijnnnnnninin
1112121222121212
.....................:: (3)
A
 is called a
n×n
 (square) matrix, and
x
 and
b
 are (column)vectors of dimension
n
.
 
 Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element MethodChapter 1. Introduction© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati
8
Row and Column Vector
[ ]
vw
= =
vvvwww
123123
Matrix Addition and Subtraction 
For two matrices
A
and
B
, both of the
 same size
 (
m×n
), theaddition and subtraction are defined by
CABDAB
= + = += =
with with
cabdab
ijijijijijij
Scalar Multiplication 
[ ]
λ λ
A
 =
a
ij
Matrix Multiplicatio
For two matrices
A
 (of size
 l×m
) and
B
 (of size
m×n
), the product of
AB
 is defined by
CAB
= = 
=
with
cab
ijimkj
1
where
i
= 1, 2, ...,
;
 j
= 1, 2, ...,
n
. Note that, in general,
ABBA
, but
()()
ABCABC
=
(associative).
 
 Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element MethodChapter 1. Introduction© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati
9
Transpose of a Matri
If
A
 = [
a
ij
], then the transpose of
A
 is
[ ]
A
 ji
a
=
 Notice that ()
ABBA
TT
=
.
Symmetric Matri
A
 square
 (
n×n
) matrix
A
 is called symmetric, if 
AA
=
 or
aa
ijji
=
Unit (Identity) Matri
I
 =
100010001..................... Note that
AI
 =
A
,
Ix
 =
x
.
Determinant of a Matri
The determinant of
 square
 matrix
A
 is a scalar number denoted by det
A
 or |
A
|. For 2
×
2 and 3
×
3 matrices, their determinants are given by
det
abcadbc
 =

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