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AP Psychology Review

AP Psychology Review

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Published by chewie14
Really condensed review of AP Psychology if you want to just refresh your knowledge. Good luck on the AP Exam for those who are taking it in May!
Really condensed review of AP Psychology if you want to just refresh your knowledge. Good luck on the AP Exam for those who are taking it in May!

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Published by: chewie14 on Sep 29, 2009
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01/08/2014

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The AP Examination in Psychology is approximately two hours long and includesboth a 75-minute multiple-choice section and a 45-minute free-response section.The multiple-choice section accounts for two-thirds of the student's examinationgrade and the free-response section for the remaining one-third. Major areascovered in the examination are as follows:*
.........................7-9%*
...........................8-10%*
.................................7-9%* States of Consciousness ...............................2-4%*
........................................7-9%*
...........................................................7-9%* Motivation and Emotion ..................................7-9%* Developmental Psychology ............................7-9%* Personality .......................................................7-9%*
.....................5-7%* Abnormal Psychology .....................................7-9%*
...............6-8%
*
.............................................7-9%
-
 
 HISTORY AND METHODS 
Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes
A Brief History-
Wilhelm
 Wundt
- founded first research lab in 1879- birth of scientific psychology
Structuralism
– studied consciousness- introspection, examining one’s mind andwhat one is thinking and feeling. Edward
Titchener
 
Functionalism
- look at function not structure, stress adaptation to theenvironment.
 William James
(Principles of Psychology in 1890) John Dewey
Gestalt
psychology – focus on the totality of perception, Max
 Wertheimer
 
Psychoanalysis
- Sigmund
Freud-
focus on role of unconscious conflicts, theprocess of raising these conflicts to a level of awareness is the goal ofpsychoanalysis
Current Views of Psychology-
Neurobiology
- Behavior viewed in terms of biological responses
Behaviorism
- Behavior viewed as a product of learned responses.
Humanism-
Behavior viewed as a reflection of internal growth. Free will, self-actualization, Carl
Rogers,
client-centered therapy
Psychodynamic
– Behavior viewed as a reflection of unconscious aggressive andsexual impulses
Cognitive
Behavior viewed as a product of various internal sentences orthoughts.Psychology
Sociocultural
– Behavior viewed as strongly influenced by the rules and
expectations of specific social groups or cultures
TERMS AND DEFINITIONS
 
Psychology- the scientific study of the behavior of living things4 goals
- describe, understand, predict and control
theory
– general framework for scientific study; smaller aspects can be tested
Charles Darwin
– theories led to comparative psychology, inspired early functionalists
Wilhelm Wundt
- ‘father of psychology’, first scientific lab
 
Introspection
- the process of looking into yourself and describing what is there
Structuralism
- the first theoretical school in psychology, stated that all complex substancescould be separated and analyzed into component elements
 Sigmund Freud
- psychodynamic approach, emphasis on the unconscious
William James
- wrote ‘Principles of Psychology’, a functionalist , coined the phrase‘stream of consciousness’
Functionalist – 
asked what the mind does and why, believed that all behavior and mental processes help organisms to adat to a changing environment
 John. B. Watson
- behaviorist, Little Albert
Gestalt psychology – 
emphasized the organizational processes in behavior, rather than thecontent of behavior, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Eclecticism
– the process of making your own system by borrowing from two or more other systems.
Neurobiologica
l approach (medical)- viewing behavior as the result of nervous system functionsand biology
Behavioral
approach –view behavior as the product of learning and associations
B. F. Skinner
- behaviorist, operant conditioning
 Humanistic approach
- believe people are basically good and capable of helping themselves.
Carl Rogers
- a humanist
Psychoanalysis
- a system of viewing the individual as the product of unconscious forces
Cognitive approach-
emphasizing how humans use mental processes to handle problems or develop certain personality characteristics
 Sociocultural approach – 
 behavior viewed as strongly influenced by the rules and expectationsof specific social groups or cultures
Placebo – 
a ‘medicine’ with no active ingredients
Double-
 blind study- neither participants or researchers know who is in which group
 Hypothesis
- a statement of the results that the experimenter expects
Subjects
- people or animals in the experiment
Independent variable
- factor that the experimenter manipulates in a study
Dependent variable
- the factor in a study that changes as a result of changes in the IV
Confounding variable
- factors that may cause the DV to change other than the IV
Field experiments
- research that takes place outside the laboratory
Experimental group
- the group that gets the changes in the IV
Control group
- this group is for comparison and doesn’t get the changed IV
Survey
- method of research using questions on feelings opinions, or behavior patterns
Sample
- a group that represents a larger group
Naturalistic observation
- research method that involves studying subjects without their beingaware that they are being watched
Interview
- a research method that involves studying people face to face and asking questions
Case study method
- research that collects lengthy, detailed info. About a person’s background,usually for treatment
Cross-sectional method
- looks at different age groups at the same time in order to understandchanges that occur during the life span
Longitudinal method
- studies the same group of people over a long period of time
Reliability
 – results of a test or study must be reproducible
Validity
– measures what the psychologist wishes to measure

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