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Six Sigma Reference Tool

Definition:

Tests the probability of sample median being equal to hypothesized value.

Tool to use:What does it do?Why use it?When to use?

No picture available!

Continuous Y, Discrete Xs

rev. 2.0bAuthor: R. Chapin

ANOVA tests to see if the differencebetween the means of each level issignificantly more than the variation withineach level. 1-way ANOVA is used when twoor more means (a single factor with three or more levels) must be compared with eachother.One-way ANOVA is useful for identifying astatistically significant difference betweenmeans of three or more levels of a factor.Use 1-way ANOVA when you need tocompare three or more means (a singlefactor with three or more levels) anddetermine how much of the totalobserved variation can be explained bythe factor.

At least one group of data is differentthan at least one other group.

Data Type:P < .05 Indicates:

þÿ1-Samplesigntest
þÿ1-WayANOVA

22676107.xlsGE PROPRIETARY INFORMATIONRMC 09/29/2009

Six Sigma 12 Step Process

StepDescriptionFocusDeliverableSample Tools

0

Project Selection

Identify project CTQ's, develop team charter, define high-level process map

1

Select CTQ characteristics

YIdentify and measure customer CTQ'sCustomer, QFD, FMEA

2

Define Performance Standards

YDefine and confirm specifications for the YCustomer, blueprints

3

Measurement System Analysis

YMeasurement system is adequate to measure Y

4

Establish Process Capability

YBaseline current process; normality testCapability indices

5

Define Performance Objectives

YStatisicly define goal of projectTeam, benchmarking

6

Identify Variation Sources

XList of statistically significant X's based on analysis of historical data

7

Screen Potential Causes

XDetermine vital few X's that cause changes to your YDOE-screening

8

Discover Variable Relationships

XFactorial designs

9

Establish Operating Tolerances

Y, XSpecify tolerances on the vital few X'sSimulation

10

Y, XMeasurement system is adequate to measure X's

11

Determine Process Capability

Y, XDetermine post improvement capability and performanceCapability indices

12

Implement Process Control

XDevelop and implement process control planControl charts, mistake proof, FMEAContinuous Gage R&R, Test/Retest,Attribute R&RProcess Analysis, Graphical analysis,hypothesis testingDetermine transfer function between Y and vital few X's; Determine optimalsettings for vital few X's; Perform confirmation runs

Define and Validate Measurement System on X'sin actual application

Continuous Gage R&R, Test/Retest,Attribute R&R

Definitions

184

TermDefinition

Training Link

1-Sample sign test

Tests the probability of sample median being equal to hypothesized value.

AccuracyAlpha riskAlternative hypothesis (Ha)Analysis of variance (ANOVA)

Analysis of variance is a statistical technique for analyzing data that tests for a difference between two or more means. See the tool 1-Way ANOVA.

Anderson-Darling Normality Test

P-value < 0.05 = not normal.

Attribute Data

see discrete data

Bar chartBenchmarkingBeta riskBiasBlocking

Blocking neutralizes background variables that can not be eliminated by randomizing. It does so by spreading them across the experiment

BoxplotCAP Includes/ExcludesCAP Stakeholder AnalysisCapability AnalysisCause

A factor (X) that has an impact on a response variable (Y); a source of variation in a process or product.

Cause and Effect DiagramCenter

The center of a process is the average value of its data. It is equivalent to the mean and is one measure of the central tendency.

Center pointsCentral Limit TheoremCharacteristic

A characteristic is a definable or measurable feature of a process, product, or variable.

Chi Square test3.1Common cause variabilityStep 12 p.103Confidence band (or interval)ConfoundingConsumers Risk

Concluding something is bad when it is actually good (TYPE II Error)

Continuous DataControl limits

Accuracy refers to the variation between a measurement and what actually exists. It is the difference between an individual's averagemeasurements and that of a known standard, or accepted "truth."Alpha risk is defined as the risk of accepting the alternate hypothesis when, in fact, the null hypothesis is true; in other words, stating a differenceexists where actually there is none. Alpha risk is stated in terms of probability (such as 0.05 or 5%). The acceptable level of alpha risk is determinedby an organization or individual and is based on the nature of the decision being made. For decisions with high consequences (such as thoseinvolving risk to human life), an alpha risk of less than 1% would be expected. If the decision involves minimal time or money, an alpha risk of 10%may be appropriate. In general, an alpha risk of 5% is considered the norm in decision making. Sometimes alpha risk is expressed as its inverse,which is confidence level. In other words, an alpha risk of 5% also could be expressed as a 95% confidence level.The alternate hypothesis (H

a

) is a statement that the observed difference or relationship between two populations is real and not due to chance or sampling error. The alternate hypothesis is the opposite of the null hypothesis (P < 0.05). A dependency exists between two or more factorsA bar chart is a graphical comparison of several quantities in which the lengths of the horizontal or vertical bars represent the relative magnitude of the values.Benchmarking is an improvement tool whereby a company measures its performance or process against other companies' best practices,determines how those companies achieved their performance levels, and uses the information to improve its own performance. See the toolBenchmarking.Beta risk is defined as the risk of accepting the null hypothesis when, in fact, the alternate hypothesis is true. In other words, stating no differenceexists when there is an actual difference. A statistical test should be capable of detecting differences that are important to you, and beta risk is theprobability (such as 0.10 or 10%) that it will not. Beta risk is determined by an organization or individual and is based on the nature of the decisionbeing made. Beta risk depends on the magnitude of the difference between sample means and is managed by increasing test sample size. Ingeneral, a beta risk of 10% is considered acceptable in decision making.Bias in a sample is the presence or influence of any factor that causes the population or process being sampled to appear different from what itactually is. Bias is introduced into a sample when data is collected without regard to key factors that may influence the population or process.A box plot, also known as a box and whisker diagram, is a basic graphing tool that displays centering, spread, and distribution of a continuous datasetCAP Includes/Excludes is a tool that can help your team define the boundaries of your project, facilitate discussion about issues related to your project scope, and challenge you to agree on what is included and excluded within the scope of your work. See the tool CAP Includes/Excludes.CAP Stakeholder Analysis is a tool to identify and enlist support from stakeholders. It provides a visual means of identifying stakeholder support sothat you can develop an action plan for your project. See the tool CAP Stakeholder Analysis.Capability analysis is a Minitab

TM

tool that visually compares actual process performance to the performance standards. See the tool CapabilityAnalysis.A cause and effect diagram is a visual tool used to logically organize possible causes for a specific problem or effect by graphically displaying themin increasing detail. It helps to identify root causes and ensures common understanding of the causes that lead to the problem. Because of itsfishbone shape, it is sometimes called a "fishbone diagram."

See the tool Cause and Effect Diagram.A center point is a run performed with all factors set halfway between their low and high levels. Each factor must be continuous to have a logicalhalfway point. For example, there are no logical center points for the factors vendor, machine, or location (such as city); however, there are logicalcenter points for the factors temperature, speed, and length.The central limit theorem states that given a distribution with a mean

and variance

2

, the sampling distribution of the mean appraches a normaldistribution with a mean and variance/N as N, the sample size, increasesA chi square test, also called "test of association," is a statistical test of association between discrete variables. It is based on a mathematicalcomparison of the number of observed counts with the number of expected counts to determine if there is a difference in output counts based onthe input category. See the tool Chi Square-Test of Independence.

Used with Defects data (counts) & defectives data (how many good or bad).Critical Chi-Squareis Chi-squared value where p=.05.

Common cause variability is a source of variation caused by unknown factors that result in a steady but random distribution of output around theaverage of the data. Common cause variation is a measure of the process's potential, or how well the process can perform when special causevariation is removed. Therefore, it is a measure of the process technology. Common cause variation is also called random variation, noise,noncontrollable variation, within-group variation, or inherent variation. Example: many X's with a small impact.Measurement of the certainty of the shape of the fitted regression line. A 95% confidence band implies a 95% chance that the true regression linefits within the confidence bands. Measurement of certainty.Factors or interactions are said to be confounded when the effect of one factor is combined with that of another. In other words, their effects can notbe analyzed independently.Continuous data is information that can be measured on a continuum or scale. Continuous data can have almost any numeric value and can bemeaningfully subdivided into finer and finer increments, depending upon the precision of the measurement system. Examples of continuous datainclude measurements of time, temperature, weight, and size. For example, time can be measured in days, hours, minutes, seconds, and in evensmaller units. Continuous data is also called quantitative data.Control limits define the area three standard deviations on either side of the centerline, or mean, of data plotted on a control chart. Do not confusecontrol limits with specification limits. Control limits reflect the expected variation in the data and are based on the distribution of the data points.Minitab™ calculates control limits using collected data. Specification limits are established based on customer or regulatory requirements.Specification limits change only if the customer or regulatory body so requests.

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