and able to wor$ together.
The Nature of the Barriers
4hile the mi! and intensity may vary by location, many of the barriers are common to any inill pro0ect in almost any city. 5ome of these barriers are more challenging in suburb-heavy cities li$e 6hoeni!, Ari"ona, in part because that region, li$e others, has developed a ma0or portion of its economy around edge or “greenield” development, and e!isting tools, s$ills and resources are still geared largely to support this class of development. 3y contrast, tools to support inill development have limited availability or, where they do e!ist, limited functionality in the present environment.As part of our research in 6hoeni!, 7ew Orleans, 6ortland and other cities, we consulted with an array of sta$eholders and gathered their input about barriers. 2or 6ortland8s /etro government, we co-authored a report on barriers to sustainable development in the “9enters and 9orridors” %:elley et al., '). 4e can summari"e the identiied barriers as follows;
Uncertainty in the entitlement process,
in part because of high scrutiny and potential opposition by sta$eholders, within a public process that does not yet provide substantial regulatory support for more wal$able mi!ed-use, compact inill development.
Relative cost of higher-density projects,
especially when structured par$ing is needed to fulill par$ing reuirements or e!pectations.
Regulatory complications from mixed-use and inill development,
which tend to ma$e this form of development slower and more costly than greenield development.
Fragmented land ownership patterns.
1t is often dificult to assemble parcels of land that are of suficient si"e to ma$e a viable redevelopment pro0ect.
Competitive advantages for suuran edge development relative to inill development.
*hese include natural advantages %such as lower development costs) and artiicial advantages %such as lower permit fees and other effective subsidies). *his has the effect of ma$ing inill development relatively uncompetitive, and more dificult to inance and sell.
!Chic"en and egg# prolem of wea" mar"ets
in areas where amenities have not yet been developed %e.g. lac$ of groceries, etc) and where there are negative aspects of amenities within e!isting neighborhoods %e.g. empty buildings, etc). *his is a particular challenge within large areas of central cities that have e!perienced economic depression as a result of sprawl policies.*here is one other factor that is very important at the present time, but may become less important as inancial mar$ets stabili"e;
$ac" of capital for larger, more conventional development projects.
*here are notable e!ceptions in larger multi-family rental, but other mar$ets, especially mi!ed-use retail, are li$ely to remain wea$ for the foreseeable future.