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4 Rectangular Concrete Tanks

4 Rectangular Concrete Tanks



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concrte tank
concrte tank

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Published by: ajitgijare on Sep 29, 2009
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Rectangular Concrete Tanks
While cylindrical shapes may be structurally best for
tank construction, rectangular tanks frequently are pre-ferred for specific purposes. Special processes or oper-
ations may make circular tanks inconvenient to use.When several separate cells are required, rectangular
tanks can be arranged in less space than circular tanks
of the same capacity. Tanks or vats needed inside abuilding are therefore often made in rectangular or
square shapes. For these and other reasons, breweries,
tanneries, and paper mills generally use rectangular
Data presented here are for design of rectangulartanks where the walls are subject to hydrostatic pres-sure of zero at the top and maximum at the bottom.Some of the data can be used for design of
retaining walls subject to earth pressure for which
a hydrostatic type of loading may be substituted in the
design calculations. Data also can be applied to design
of circular reservoirs of large diameter where lateral
stability depends on the action of counterforts built inte-
grally with the wall.Another article on tank construction, Circular Con-crete Tanks
has been publishedby the Portland Cement Association.
Moment Coefficients
Moment coefficients were calculated for individual
panels considered fixed along vertical edges, and coef-
ficients were subsequently adjusted to allow for a cer-
tain rotation about the vertical edges. First, three sets of
edge conditions were investigated, in all of which verti-cal edges were assumed fixed while the other edgeswere as follows:1. Top hinged-bottom hinged2. Top free-bottom
3. Top free-bottom fixed*Moment coefficients for these edge conditions aregiven in Tables
2, and 3, respectively. In all tables,
denotes height and
width of the wall. In Tables
2,and 3, coefficients are given for nine ratios of
thelimits being
= 3.0 and 0.5. The origin of the coordi-
nate system is at midpoint of the top edge; the
axis ishorizontal; the X axis is vertical and its positive directiondownward. The sign convention for bending moments isbased on the coordinate fiber that is being stressed. For
stresses fibers parallel to the X axis, Thesign convention used here is not compatible with twoother conventions-namely, that (1) the subscript
axis of the moment, and (2) that the moment is in a
Portland Cement Association 1969
Revised 1961
principal plane. Coefficients are given-exceptwhere they are known to be zero-at edges, quarterpoints, and midpoints both in X and
The slab was assumed to act as a thin plate, for which
equations are available in textbooks such as Theory
Plates and Shells 
by S. Timoshenko,” but since only asmall portion of the necessary calculations for momentcoefficients for specific cases is available in the engi-neering literature, they have been made especially for
this text.
Table 4 contains moment coefficients for uniformload on a rectangular plate considered hinged on allfour sides. The table is for designing cover slabs andbottom slabs for rectangular tanks with one cell. If thecover slab is made continuous over intermediate sup-
ports, the design can follow procedures for the design of
slabs supported on four sides.Coefficients for individual panels with fixed sideedges apply without modification to continuous wallsprovided there is no rotation about vertical edges. In asquare tank, therefore, moment coefficients can betaken directly from Tables
2, or 3. In a rectangulartank, however, an adjustment must be made, as wasdone in Tables 5 and 6, similar to the modification offixed-end moments in a frame analyzed by moment
In this procedure the common-side edge of two ad-
 jacent panels is first considered artificially restrained so
that no rotation can take place about the edge.
edge moments taken from Tables
or 3 are usually
dissimilar in adjacent panels and the differences, which
correspond to unbalanced moments, tend to rotate theedge. When the artificial restraint is removed these un-balanced moments will induce additional moments inthe panels, Adding induced and fixed-end moments at
the edge gives final end moments, which must be iden-
tical on both sides of the common edge.Moment distribution cannot be applied as simply tocontinuous tank walls as it can to framed structures,because moments must be distributed simultaneously
along the entire length of the side edge so that momentsbecome equal at both sides at any point of the edge. The
problem was simplified and approximated to some ex-
tent by distributing moments at four points only: quarter
points, midpoint, and top. The end moments in the twointersecting slabs were made identical at these fourpoints and moments at interior points adjusted accord-
cases where wall slab, counterfort, and base slab areall
Book Co, New York, 1959

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