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Identity Document Challenges and Solutions

Identity Document Challenges and Solutions

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Identity theft and ID counterfeiting are
among the fastest growing types of crime, especially in highly industrialized
countries. According to FBI statistics, it is the fastest growing crime in USA. The Federal Trade Commission estimates that as many as
9 million Americans have their identities stolen each year. Indeed, just to highlight
the size of the problem, in April 2012 the European Parliament estimated that of the 6.5 million bio-metric passports in circulation in France between 500,000 and one million are ‘false’ having been obtained using
counterfeit documents. In most cases, the targets are government - issued documents such as passports, driver’s licenses, or national ID cards.
Identity theft and ID counterfeiting are
among the fastest growing types of crime, especially in highly industrialized
countries. According to FBI statistics, it is the fastest growing crime in USA. The Federal Trade Commission estimates that as many as
9 million Americans have their identities stolen each year. Indeed, just to highlight
the size of the problem, in April 2012 the European Parliament estimated that of the 6.5 million bio-metric passports in circulation in France between 500,000 and one million are ‘false’ having been obtained using
counterfeit documents. In most cases, the targets are government - issued documents such as passports, driver’s licenses, or national ID cards.

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Published by: CHANDER SHEKHAR JEENA on Jan 31, 2014
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01/31/2014

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www.homai.org
8
 The Holography TimesVol. 7, Issue 22
Identity document: challenges and solutions
By C S Jeen
With today’s technology, document can be easily duplicated and altered. Document tampering occurs frequently, however, inexpensive color copiers, scanners, and PC’s have made duplication easy and readily available. This is happening at an alarming rate, and every business is vulnerable. In most cases, the targets are government-issued documents such as passports, driver’s licenses, or national ID cards.  The article highlight the issues related to document counterfeiting and the importance of hologram in document protection.
Identity documents:
Human beings need some form of identity document. An identity document tells a story about the holder on the subject of the document. The objective is to enable other person to understand more about the subject and to identify them. Above all, an identity document needs to be trustworthy. An identity document (also called a piece of identiication or ID, or colloquially as one’s ‘papers’) is any document which may be used to verify aspects of a person’s personal identity. If issued in the form of a small, mostly standard-sized card, it is usually called an identity card (IC). Countries which do not have formal identity documents may require informal documents. It could be an identity card or travel documents.
Why have ID’s
 
In the middle age when people tend to live in clusters within village or tribes, personal documentation was not considered important at all. Nevertheless, many centuries ago identiication tokens were in forms of animal skin, gems and stone to seals introduced to enable for example representatives of the King travelling for neighbouring States. Eventually, paper identity documents emerged as evidence of someone’s identity, and more in particular of the bearer’s position, with the request to grant safe passage to the bearer. Mostly, these documents served as a status symbol for the privileged rather than a form of identiication. The need for reliable identity documents only became imminent when travel started to become more popular. The need for proper identity management became more obvious and compelling during World War I, when people started to realize the need to establish the identity of everybody who entered the ighting zone. In 1920, the League of Nations organized an international conference in order to work out common formats for passports and visa, including the layout, content and validity. Unfortunately, the effort was unsuccessful, due to lack of political will.
Cover Story
 
www.homai.org
9
 The Holography TimesVol. 7, Issue 22
Cover Story
Purpose of the identity document 
 
An identity document has a number of purposes; -
Proof of identity:
 These days, persons are asked to prove their identity when dealing with a Bank, entering a restricted area or completing an important transactions such as buying a house etc. etc. They have no need for a travel document and only need a trustworthy identity document for domestic use. For example an identity card, PAN Card, driving license, social security card, AADHAR card or medicare card. -
Facilitation of travel:
 A trustworthy identiication document facilitates international travel because it provides a proven means for identiication purpose and guarantees the return of the bearer to a designated place. -
Proof of Nationality:
 A travel document not only certiied the nationality of the holder, but also indicates whether the holder has the right to return to the issuing country or his place of domicile, through a visa label or a stamp in the document.
Common identity documents
An identity card is a generic term for various cards types such as social security cards, citizen’s cards, resident cards and driving licenses. These can be classiied into Travel Document or Document used for Domestic purpose. Travel Documents: Travel document are documents intended for international travel, such as passports and certiicates of identity, normally come in the shape of a booklet which can include a visa sticker and the conditions of stay laid down by the immigration authorities of the receiving country or region.
Domestic Document:
These type of document are mainly intended for various purpose within the country of origin. Such as Permanent Account Number (PAN Card), Driving License, Voter ID card etc. etc.
Challenges concerning identity documents
Due to their importance, identity documents are a continuous subject of fraudulent and criminal activities. These include forged and false documents, false identity and impersonation and human traficking. i.
Forged and false documents:
Identity theft and ID counterfeiting are among the fastest growing types of crime, especially in highly industrialized countries. According to FBI statistics, it is the fastest growing crime in USA. The Federal Trade Commission estimates that as many as 9 million Americans have their identities stolen each year. Indeed, just to highlight the size of the problem, in April 2012 the European Parliament estimated that of the 6.5 million bio-metric passports in circulation in France between 500,000 and one million are ‘false’ having been obtained using counterfeit documents. In most cases, the targets are government - issued documents such as passports, driver’s licenses, or national ID cards.ii.
How ID are copied/faked:
 According to various Organization, common examples of forged and false documents include; - Counterfeit identity documents that emulate the
“The Federal Trade Commission estimates that as many as 9 million Americans have their identities stolen each year.”
 
www.homai.org
10
 The Holography TimesVol. 7, Issue 22
Cover Story
features and characteristic of valid IDs issued by Government. For example, counterfeit driver license with an unexpired date. - Valid identity documents, usually issued in the name of a ictitious or stolen identity, obtained through fraudulent means. - Valid identity documents have been altered after issuance to change a name, photo image, age, or other biographic descriptor.
Damaged caused by the duplicate/copies/fake IDs:
 
The fake ID can impact National security, public safety and the Economy. While counterfeited ID use for inancial gain harmed common consumer, the counterfeited Government ID’s can be a serious threat to national security and economy. Terrorist group and homegrown extremists have used counterfeit ID’s to rent cars and trucks, and to buy chemicals or certain fertilizers to derive high potency explosive components. Example includes 11 September 2001 in USA and 26 November 2008 in Mumbai (India).
What can be done?
 
i.
Common guidelines for stronger card security:
 With the lack of consistent standards across identiication document, it is often dificult to give reasonable assurance of a given document authenticity. Improving the security of identity documents is a matter of urgent national security. Most Identity Document are not designed as secure documents, and therefore are no uniform security standards in place to assist the public and law enforcement in the recognition of genuine versus counterfeit identity documents. As an essential step, Government should issue a standard basic guidelines for document protection security such as; - All document must be incorporated with overt, covert and forensic security features; - A combination of security features with other level 2 and level 3 security features to form a layered approach. (See table)- Specialised and secure card production materials designed to prevent counterfeiting and should be limited to access and costly to obtain. - Use of technology that does more than verify a bar code. ID readers must be able to verify security features as well as bar codes digitally and non-digitally. ii.
Training for enforcement of 
icials:
 Oficials involved in security of various premises including Army Personnel and Local Police should become trained in basic methods of identity document authentication, and have tools available to assist in differentiating fake IDs from valid IDs. For example reference guides to State Licenses are essential tools for authentication, as counterfeit driver licenses are most often used in States other than the State from which the document is counterfeited.
Hologram security:
There are many security features that can be applied to documents, both overt and covert and hologram are among one of the most effective authentication measures in the battle against document counterfeiting.
“Terrorist group and homegrown extremists have used counterfeit ID’s to rent cars and trucks, and to buy chemicals or certain fertilizers to derive high potency explosive components. Example includes 11 September 2001 in USA and 26 November 2008 in Mumbai (India).”

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