. 5, I
ISSN : 2230-7109 (Online) | ISSN : 2230-9543 (Print)www.iject.org
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
A Comprehensive Study of Antenna Terminology Using HFSS
Dr. Dilip Kumar
Centre for Development of Advanced Computing, Mohali
JNV Theog, Shimla, HP, India
College of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing, China
Antenna is very important component of communication systems.
By denition, an antenna is a device used to transform an RF signal, traveling on a conductor, into an electromagnetic wave in free space. Antennas demonstrate a property known as reciprocity, which means that an antenna will maintain the same characteristics
regardless if it is transmitting or receiving. Antennas need to be
optimized for specic applications like mobile phone, AM/FM, TV etc. And for that purpose the various properties like Size, Gain, Directivity, etc. are modied to get the best results. So, in this paper, we had presented a comprehensive study of antenna terminology by taking an example in HFSS (High Frequency Structured Simulator).
Antenna, Directivity, Gain, HFSS, Radiation Pattern, SAR.
When a signal is fed into an antenna, the antenna will emit radiation distributed in space in a certain way.Most antennas are resonant devices, which operate efciently over a relatively narrow frequency band. An antenna must be tuned to the same frequency band of the radio system to which it is connected, otherwise the reception and the transmission will be impaired. Fig. 1 shows antenna principle. A graphical representation of the relative distribution of the radiated power in space is called a radiation pattern. In this paper, antenna terminology is explained using HFSS Antenna Design kit which is shown in g. 2.Fig. 1: Antenna Principle Fig. 2: Antenna Types in HFSS Simulator
II. Antenna Simulators
There are various antenna simulators available in the market for the purpose of simulating the behavior based on the specications. These can be broadly classied into two categories, namely FDTD (Finite difference time domain) and FEM (Finite element method).
The FDTD method is a numerical analysis technique used for modeling computational electrodynamics. Since it is a time domain method, it can cover a wide range of frequencies .
Fem method is a numerical technique for nding approximate solutions to boundary value problems for differential equations.The various big names in this eld are CST Studio, FEKO, Antenna Magus, and HFSS. Here, we have chosen(High Frequency Structured Simulator) HFSS, because the motive is to explain the basics of an antenna while keeping the complexity level at a minimum. HFSS uses the FEM solver technique [12-13].
III. Antenna TerminologiesA. Input Impedance
For an efcient transfer of energy, the impedance of the radio, of the antenna and of the transmission cable connecting them must be the same . Transceivers and their transmission lines are typically designed for 50 Ω impedance. If the antenna has an impedance different from 50 Ω, then there is a mismatch and an impedance matching circuit is required. Fig. 3 shows input impedance using HFSS.