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Guide to Genetic Programming

Guide to Genetic Programming

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Published by: amanpratap007 on Sep 30, 2009
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A Field Guide toGenetic Programming
Riccardo PoliDepartment of Computing and Electronic SystemsUniversity of Essex – UK
William B. LangdonDepartments of Biological and Mathematical SciencesUniversity of Essex – UK
Nicholas F. McPheeDivision of Science and MathematicsUniversity of Minnesota, Morris – USA
with contributions byJohn R. KozaStanford University – USA
March 2008
Riccardo Poli, William B. Langdon, and Nicholas F. McPhee, 2008This work is licensed under the
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
). Thatis:
You are free:
to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work
Under the following conditions:Attribution.
You must give the original authors credit.
You may not use this work for commercialpurposes.
No Derivative Works.
You may not alter, transform, or buildupon this work.For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the licenceterms of this work. Any of these conditions can be waived if you getpermission from the copyright holders. Nothing in this license impairsor restricts the authors’ rights.Non-commercial uses are thus permitted without any further authorisationfrom the copyright owners. The book may be freely downloaded in electronicform at
. Printed copies can alsobe purchased inexpensively from
. For more informationabout Creative Commons licenses, go to
or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, SanFrancisco, California, 94105, USA.To cite this book, please see the entry for (Poli, Langdon, and McPhee,2008) in the bibliography.ISBN 978-1-4092-0073-4 (softcover)
Genetic programming (GP) is a collection of evolutionary computation tech-niques that allow computers to solve problems automatically. Since its in-ception twenty years ago, GP has been used to solve a wide range of prac-tical problems, producing a number of human-competitive results and evenpatentable new inventions. Like many other areas of computer science, GPis evolving rapidly, with new ideas, techniques and applications being con-stantly proposed. While this shows how wonderfully prolific GP is, it alsomakes it difficult for newcomers to become acquainted with the main ideasin the field, and form a mental map of its different branches. Even for peoplewho have been interested in GP for a while, it is difficult to keep up withthe pace of new developments.Many books have been written which describe aspects of GP. Someprovide general introductions to the field as a whole. However, no newintroductory book on GP has been produced in the last decade, and anyonewanting to learn about GP is forced to map the terrain painfully on theirown. This book attempts to fill that gap, by providing a modern field guideto GP for both newcomers and old-timers.It would have been straightforward to find a traditional publisher for sucha book. However, we want our book to be as accessible as possible to every-one interested in learning about GP. Therefore, we have chosen to make itfreely available on-line, while also allowing printed copies to be ordered in-expensively from
. Visit
for the details.The book has undergone numerous iterations and revisions. It began asa book-chapter overview of GP (more on this below), which quickly grewto almost 100 pages. A technical report version of it was circulated on theGP mailing list. People responded very positively, and some encouraged usto continue and expand that survey into a book. We took their advice andthis field guide is the result.
We would like to thank the University of Essex and the University of Min-nesota, Morris, for their support.

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