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Preschooler (3-5 Years)

Preschooler (3-5 Years)

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Published by Edward Arlu
This gives you a little overview about the preschooler. I based this from Adele Pillitteri's Maternal and CHild Health Nursing Book. Hope it can help!
This gives you a little overview about the preschooler. I based this from Adele Pillitteri's Maternal and CHild Health Nursing Book. Hope it can help!

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Published by: Edward Arlu on Sep 30, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/29/2010

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PageE. A. Dinoy BSN II-D
Preschooler
 
(3-5 Years)
Assessment:
Physical Growth and DevelopmentSlimmer, taller and much more childlikeLearns extended languageLymphatic tissues begin to increase insize e.g. tonsilsIgG and IgA levels increasePhysiologic splitting of heart sounds maybe presentAnteroposterior and transverse diametersof the chest reach adult proportionsPulse rate decreases to about 85 bpmBlood pressure: 100/60 mmHgMuscles are noticeably strongerExhibits genu valgus(knock-knees)Weight gain: slight at 4.5 lbs (2 kg) a yearAppetite remains as it was duringtoddlerhoodHeight gain: minimal at 2 - 3.5 inches (6-8cm) a year in average20 of all their deciduous teeth are presentat 3 years of age
CognitiveFalls to the preoperational stageaccording to Piaget They have
intuitional thought
but theylack insight to view themselves as otherssee them or put themselves in another’splaceVocabulary is about 900 wordsImaginations are keener than they will beat any other time in their lives The child with a well-developed sense of initiative discovers that learning aboutnew things is funDevelopmental task: Initiative versusGuilt To gain a sense of initiative, they needexposure to a wide variety oexperiences and play materials They are interested in seeing new placesand enjoy going with the family onvacation- these activities lead toincreased vocabulary and learn wordswhich they transfer from abstract
 
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PageE. A. Dinoy BSN II-Dconcepts to the objects to which theyrelate They have such active imaginations thatthey need little guidance
Imitation:
they need free rein to imitatethe roles of the people around them
Fantasy:
they believe that theirthoughts and wishes come true
Personality-TemperamentEgocentric-defines something in relationto themselvesIf children are criticized or punished forattempts at initiative, they develop asense of guilt for wanting to try newactivities or have new experiences They need exposure to an adult of theopposite sex so they can become familiarwith opposite gender rolesBecause 3-years olds are capable of sharing, they play with other childrenagreeably than do toddlers , which is whypreschool age is sensitive and criticaltime for socialization They can determine right from wrongbased on their parent’s rules
CommunicationFrequently asks how and why questionsthat needs simple answersWords with multiple meaning s areconfounding to themEnjoys participating in mealtimeconversation and describes somethingfrom their day in great detail
Emotional They have a great deal in their ability tounderstand the world and how they relateto people
Oedipus Complex:
strong emotionalattachment of a preschool boy to hismother
Electra Complex:
attachment of apreschool girl to his motherEach child competes with the same-sexparent for the love and attention of theother parent
PlayDo not need many toys They enjoy games that use IMITATION e.g.playing house They imitate what they see their parentsare doing
 
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PageE. A. Dinoy BSN II-DMany have imaginary friends as a normalpart of having active imagination4 and 5 years old divide their timebetween rough housing and imitativeplaysAlso interested in group gamesBegin to develop best-friendships
Diagnosis:
Wellness oriented:Health-seeking behaviors related todevelopmental expectations
Other Nursing Diagnosis:Risk for injury related to increasedindependence outside the homeDelayed growth and development relatedto frequent illnessesRisk for poisoning related to maturationalage of childRisk for injury to teeth related todevelopmental age and play activitiesRisk for Impaired Urinary Eliminationrelated to parental knowledge deficit of toilet-training techniques
Planning/Implementation for HealthPromotion:
Preschooler safetyAs preschoolers broaden their horizons,safety issues increaseBy age 4, they may project an attitude of independence and the ability to take careof their own needs(
PSEUDO-INDEPENDENCE)
 They still need supervision to be certainthey do not injure themselves or otherchildren and to ensure they do not straytoo far from home They must be reminded repeatedly of automobile safety They may imitate taking medicine soadults should never take them in front of childrenWarn a child never to talk with or acceptgifts from strangersTeach a child how to call for emergencyDescribe what police officers look likeExplain the importance of telling secretsto adult when they feel uncomfortableExplain not to tolerate bullying behaviorsfrom other children

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