Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Carnivore Brain Size, Behavorial Ecology, And Phylogeny [1254332833]

Carnivore Brain Size, Behavorial Ecology, And Phylogeny [1254332833]

Ratings: (0)|Views: 301|Likes:
Published by brentlion
Carnivore Brain Size, Behavorial Ecology, And Phylogeny.
Carnivore Brain Size, Behavorial Ecology, And Phylogeny.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: brentlion on Sep 30, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

04/10/2011

pdf

text

original

 
CARNIVOREBRAINSIZE,BEHAVIORALECOLOGY,ANDPHYLOGENY
JOHNL.GITTLEMANSchoolofBiologicalSciences,UniversityofSussex,Brighton, EnglandandDepartmentofZoologicalResearch,NationalZoologicalPark,SmithsonianInstitution,Washington,DC20008Presentaddress:DepartmentofZoology, UniversityofTennessee,Knoxville,TN37916ABSTRACT.-This
aperexamineselationshipsetweenbrainsize(relativeobodysize)anddifferencesnecologyandbehaviorwithin the orderCarnivora. Afterremovinghe effectsofbodysize(eitherbodyweightor head andbodylength) ignificantifferencesn brainize existamongamilies.Variationn relativebrainizeacross he orderandcomparativerainizewithinfamiliesmightrelate o differencesndiet(carnivoresnd omnivores aveargerbrainizes haninsectivores)ndbreedinggrouptype.Thesefindingsare discussed ndcomparedwith thosefound n smallmammalsrodents,nsectivores,agomorphs), rimatesndbats.Recent studies have revealedcorrelationsbetween relative brainsize-measured asgrossbrainsize afterbodysize effects are removed-and behavior(Clutton-BrockandHarvey,1980;HafnerandHafner,1984;Rensch,1959),ecology(Clutton-BrockandHarvey,1980;EisenbergandWilson, 1978,1981;Mace etal.,1981),life histories(SacherandStaffeldt,1974),andtaxonomy(BauchotandStephan,1966,1969;Jerison,1973).Inthispaper,these factors areexamined forcorrelationswith relative brain sizeinthe orderCarnivora,agroupthat has notpreviouslyreceivedquantitative analysisas a whole.Fromqualitative comparisonsofencephalizationinprimatesandinsectivores,Bauchot andStephan(1966,1969)concluded that habitatcomplexity, dietary specializationandactivitypatternsare associated with increased relativebrain size. PirlotandStephan(1970)and morerecentlyEisenbergandWilson(1978)showedthat relative brain sizeinChiropterais correlatedwithforaging strategiesthatinvolvethelocation ofenergyrichfoodresources. Clutton-BrockandHarvey(1980)and Mace et al.(1981)foundaparallel relationshipbetweenbrain size anddietinprimatesandsmall mammals:folivoreshave smaller brain sizes for theirbody weightthanfrugivores,insectivores,andgranivores. Lastly,Eisenbergand Wilson(1981)and Meier(1983)foundthat indidelphidmarsupialsand North Americansciurids,respectively, arborealitytends tobe associated withrelativelylargebrainsize. Allofthese studies therefore illustratethat variationin relative brain sizeamongeutherianmammals can bepartlyexplainedintermsof behavioralandecologicalfactors.Inlightof recentdiscussion(seeHarveyandBennett,1983),onefurtherexplanationofdifferencesinbrainsize must be mentioned.Followingre-evaluation ofthe standardbrain-bodyweightrelationshipacrossa widerangeofmammals,it has been observedthat theinterspecificscalingis closer to athree-quartersexponent(Bauchot,1978;Eisenberg,1981; Hofman, 1982,1983;Martin,1981;Martin andHarvey,1985)thana two-thirdsexponent,aspreviouslycal-culated(Jerison,1973).This revisedrelationshipsuggeststhat variationin brain sizemayrelatetoenergetics:basalmetabolicrate,measured asenergyneedsperunitbodyweightinagiventimeperiod,increasesto thethree-quarters powerofbodyweight. Althoughenergeticneedsmaybe animportantfactorinfluencingbrainsize,itcannotbetaken into accountinthisanalysisbecausefew valuesof basalmetabolicrate areavailableacrosscarnivores(Eisenberg,1981;Gittleman,1984).
METHODS
Brainandbodyweights.-Dataon adultbodyweightsandbody engthslengthof headandbodywithouttail)weretakenfrom thepublishediteratureTable1;references regiveninGittleman,1984).Mean
J.Mamm.,67(1):23-36,1986
23
 
TABLE
1.-Speciesanddata usedforanalysis. TaxonomyfollowsEwer(1973)exceptforAilurusandAiluropodandGittleman,1984).Following familyandspeciesnames,columns indicate:(1)Activity pattern:D=diurnal;crepuscularandnocturnal.(2)Vegetation:N=open grasslandandforest;0=opengrassland;R=forest;S=scrub;T=desert;W=woodland;Q=aquatic.(3)Zonation: T=terrestrial;S=terrestrial andoccasionallyarbaquatic.(4)Diet: M=carnivorous(flesh eater);0=omnivorous;I=insectivorous;F=piscivorous;V=frugivoM=monogamous.(6) Breedingtype:S=single-male;M=multi-male.(7)Bodyweight(kg). (8)Brainweight(g)only(mother);2=biparental;3=communalfemales;4=communalmale(s)andfemales.(11)Gestationlengtsize.
Species1 23 4567 8
CanidaeCanislupusCanislatransCanisaureusCanisadustusCanismesomelasLycaonpictusCuonalpinusAlopexlagopusVulpesbengalensisVulpesruppelliVulpes pallidaVulpeschamaVulpesveloxVulpesvulpesFennecus zerdaNyctereutesprocyonoidesOtocyonmegalotisUrocyoncinereoargenteusUrocyonlittoralisDusicyonculpaeusDusicyon gymnocercusAtelocynusmicrotusChrysocyonbrachyurusSpeothosvenaticusUrsidaeUrsusarctosUrsusamericanusThalarctos maritimusANT MMMCNTM MS00 T 0MMNS T
0
-
S
CW T 0MSD0TMMMD R TM -
-
A0TM
-
M0S T
-
S
O
T T M
-
-
N0 T0 M
-
N 0T 0MSNR T MMS
O
TT0M
-
NR T0M
O
S T I MS
O
DT0M
-
A ST MMN
0
T MAN T MM MN NT
--
NR T
-
DRTM--~AN TVPSDS S VPSD
--
S33.1110.498.7611.257.6921.9817.643.192.273.603.603.102.204.141.517.463.943.632.057.324.399.0323.105.99298.87109.95365.04131.6388.2372.2451.9456.83129.0294.6335.5225.7924.2925.0333.4532.1443.3817.2928.5026.8440.8527.6651.4240.0462.18120.3040.45336.97259.82459.44
 
TABLE
1.-Continued.
Species1 2 3 4 56 7 8
SelenarctosthibetanusHelarctosmalayanusMelursusursinusProcyonidaeBassariscusastutusJentinkiasumichrastiPotosflavusNasuanasuaProcyonlotorAiluridaeAilurusfulgensAiluropodamelanoleucaMustelidaeMustelaermineaMustela nivalisMustelarixosaMustelafrenataMustelaaltaicaMustelasibiricaMustelalutreolaMustelavisonMustelaputoriusMustelanigripesVormelaperegusnaMartesmartesMartesfoinaMartesamericanaMartespennantiMartes zibellinaMartesflavigulaGuloguloTayrabarbaraGrisonvittatusGrisoncujaIctonyxstriatusARSV--SN RB
V
-
A N BVN W B0--N R A0
-
-0 ST0--NRSV--CRSV-A R T M
-
--AST M
-
--ASB M
-
--0N T M--0NSM
-
--OR-M--N R
-
M
-
-N RSM--CN T I
-
--N R B M--NR B M- -
A
-
-_
NRT O
-
--D RB M MSA NT SP
-
D NT M
--
NSTO
-
S100.4879.84101.490.840.902.055.006.17314.19354.25304.9016.4419.3025.5329.9640.043.7440.85117.92235.100.090.100.050.230.190.570.590.911.030.580.591.800.863.461.172.5111.134.392.441.00.754.011.991.004.014.486.758.508.508.258.504.7620.0920.9115.8031.8218.5434.1278.2635.8724.2915.039.78

Activity (3)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
semiadi1032 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->